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; *MISS .MURRAY* & iMJACK PUGS. 



A MANUAL OF 

TOY DOGS 

HOW TO BREED, REAR, AND 
FEED THEM 



BY 

MRS. LESLIE WILLIAMS 



THIRD EDITION 
THIRD IMPRESSION 



LONDON 
EDWARD ARNOLD 

41 & 48, MADDOX STREET, BOND STREET, W. 
1919 



T7 wr 



Copyright 1904 
Ail rights reserved 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION 

THIS little book, in its earlier editions, met with so 
uniformly kind and gracious a reception, that I am 
encouraged to hope it may still make new friends on this, 
its third appearance. It has given me the greatest 
pleasure to hear from correspondents in many countries 
that they have found it as helpful as I hoped a manual 
drawn entirely from actual personal experience might 
prove to be. 

In the years which have elapsed since I first wrote 
upon dogs, there has been a wonderful advance in 
veterinary science and practice. Operative surgery 
under anaesthetics has become nearly as confident in 
relieving our pets as in abating our own miseries. 
Much disease, however, is still present among dogs for 
which there is no warrant in Nature, and which might 
be entirely conquered in the course of a few generations, 
could the prejudice against natural and rational diet 
be completely abandoned. To persuade dog-owners 
to give meat-feeding a trial one honest experiment 
has never in my experience failed to convince the most 
sceptical has been my constant endeavour, and I 
cannot let the " Toy Dog Manual " go forth on another 
journey without once more laying emphasis on the fact 



vi PREFACE 

that the really successful dog-owner's secret is a very 
simple one, spelt in the four letters MEAT. I have 
to thank numerous kind friends for help in providing 
the illustrations, nearly all pictures of actual present- 
day winning dogs, and examples not only of beauty 
and show points, but of perfect health. I am also 
greatly indebted to The Illustrated Kennel News for the 
loan of blocks and for other kind courtesies, as also to 
The Ladies' Field, a paper devoted in its kennel columns 
to the best interest of dogs. 

M. L. WILLIAMS. 

SWANSWICK, BATH, 
May ^th, 1910. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

TOY DOGS FOR PROFIT .. .. ... .. .. I 

ON BREEDING .'. .. .. ... .. .. 5 

THE TOY BITCH WHEN PUPPING . . ., . . Q 

ON REARING PUPS . . . . . . . . 14 

ON FEEDING TOYS . . . . . . . . . . IQ 

EXHIBITING AND PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION . . 23 

THE CHOICE OF BREEDS . . . . . . . . 30 

AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES . . . . . . . . 42 

CLUB STANDARDS, DESCRIPTIONS AND POINTS OF 

VARIOUS TOY BREEDS .. ... '.. . . 80 

INDEX .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 105 



Yll 



A MANUAL OF TOY' HOGS" 



CHAPTER I 

TOY DOGS FOR PROFIT 

PERHAPS the question which is most frequently asked 
anent toy dogs is whether the keeping them as a plea- 
sure and hobby can be combined with profit by means 
of breeding them and selling the puppies. To such a 
query it is very hard to give a definite reply, for this 
reason whether or not toy dog breeding can be made 
profitable depends, firstly, on the character of the enter- 
priser, and, secondly, on that inscrutable factor Fate. 
Some of us devote ourselves to our dogs, take endless 
trouble for them, and spend money on them freely, with 
the poorest possible return ; others, while not making 
nearly so much fuss about their pets, manage to turn 
out healthy litters at regular intervals, and sell them at 
remunerative prices. All that can be done is to put 
before the novice " how not to do it," and leave to each 
individually the chances called luck, for which their 
star is answerable. Taking one year with another, and 
presupposing patience, perseverance, affection for the 
dogs, and some business-like qualities in the aspirant, 
I am of opinion that toy dogs can be made to pay their 
expenses, and leave a margin of profit ; this in the 
case of non-exhibitors. Where exhibiting is contem- 
plated, the luck element is still more to the front, and 
a degree of experience, both local and general, is essential 
to success. If success, however, in winning prizes is 
once attained, the sales of puppies become much more 
assured, and higher prices are naturally obtainable. 



2 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

As a means of eking out a small income, dog breeding 
is occasionally successful, supposing the breeder to 
possess advantages in the way of proper quarters, and 
plenty of time to spare, natural aptitude not being 
wanted; but. I should greatly hesitate to suggest to a 
poor lady) without experience in dogs, that she should 
embark capital in such a venture. Many people seem 
possessed with the idea that they have only to buy a 
female dog, or dogs (generally the latter, since the novice 
is always inclined to split upon the rock of overcrowding 
and overstocking at first), and get it mated with some 
well-known sire, to ensure a fine, healthy litter of pups, 
which can be immediately sold at high prices, having in 
the meantime been fed on dog biscuit and attended to, 
more or less, by any one who happens to be at home. No 
greater mistake ! If you want to succeed with toy dogs, 
you must, at any rate until you have considerable ex- 
perience and, in addition, the ability to direct others and 
make them understand, which is never an easy task, 
look after the pets yourself, not spasmodically, but 
regularly ; see that they have exercise and proper food 
in proper quantity and variety, and at fixed and regular 
hours ; you must have an eye always open to notice the 
smallest beginnings of illness a watchfulness servants, 
for example, never can comprehend, still less practise ; 
and lastly, you must set an aim before you and keep to 
it with perseverance, even though you may, and prob- 
ably will, often feel impatient and despairing. Then, 
too, you must be prepared to nurse the dogs properly if, 
or when, they are ill. Nobody can expect to be exempt 
from illness, dog or man, and good nursing is as needful in 
the one case as in the other. A sick toy dog must be kept 
clean, petted, sat with, talked to, and tempted with nice 
things, like a sick baby, for the little spirit has much to 
do with the tender frame, and pain and weakness need 
sympathy, and respond to it eagerly. A little toy bitch, 
accustomed to fly to her owner at every impulse, cannot 
be left to have puppies all alone though her fussy pre- 
parations, which may last all night, are rather wearisome. 



TOY DOGS FOR PROFIT 3 

Some one must stay with her and comfort her until 
her troubles are over ; otherwise, she will fret and worry 
until, when the pups do appear, she has no milk for them. 

All these little requirements and necessities may seem 
absurd to those who think a dog is a dog and nothing 
more ; but we have bred generation after generation of 
toys to be in our constant company, and made them 
almost humanly intelligent, while, naturally, their small 
brains have no human balance ; and that a nervous 
toy dog does need such consideration will be granted, 
I am sure, by all successful breeders. At the same 
time, I am by no means advocating the silly system of 
overpetting and overfeeding, whereby dogs can be made 
a nuisance to themselves and every one else. Because 
a child must be taken care of, it does not follow that it 
need be spoiled : we ought to put a hat on its head 
when it goes out in the sun, but we need not walk 
beside it, holding an umbrella over it ; and so with our 
small dogs they must be watched and cared for, but 
they need not, and should not, be coddled and made silly. 

I have no opinion of a dog which will not go out 
because it is raining, preferring to make itself objection- 
able in the house ; or of one which leaves the small 
proportion of biscuit in its dinner and comes round 
scratching your arm for more meat ; or of one which 
rushes back to the fire when a walk is suggested on a 
chilly day. Dogs like this have not been properly cared 
for ; it is not affection for them, seeking their well- 
being, but downright silliness, which is responsible for 
their self-indulgent ways. Thanks be that toy dogs 
of this kind are becoming much less common, and 
indeed, in the case of any person desiring to keep them 
with an idea of profit, such ways would be discouraged 
by self-interest, for pampered dogs are not those which 
breed freely and do their puppies justice. 

Where it is necessary that the dogs shall pay their 
way, it is of the first necessity that Jthe inevitable 
expenses of starting and gaining experience shall be 
carefully considered. It is not a bad plan to get a 



4 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

little cheap dog, and see it through a litter before 
embarking in a " paying " breed, as where these are 
concerned it is useless to expect return unless a really 
good price has been paid for valuable stock to begin 
with. One does occasionally see such toys as Japs 
and Poms advertised very cheaply ; and I have known 
people who studied these advertisements with rosy 
visions of " picking up " a bitch from an excellent 
strain, at a guinea or two with some slight fault, 
like a few white hairs, to cheapen her of breeding show 
stock from her and making a little fortune. Chances 
like this seldom come in the way of the novice. The 
best start a would-be breeder who is without any ex- 
perience can have, is by placing herself in the hands 
of some one who has been successful, buying a young 
bitch which comes of a winning strain, though it may 
possess some fault, at a fair price which will not be 
a small one and taking the breeder's advice as to 
mating, etc. Or it is by no means a bad plan to buy a 
brace of unrelated young puppies and rear them. Of 
this, more in the chapter on breeding. 

To buy imported or pedigreeless small toys for breed- 
ing is a complete lottery. Foreign breeders are extremely 
careless with regard to their strains, and purity of blood 
can never be depended on. Another point which must 
be insisted upon in relation to profitable toy breeding 
is the necessity for health in the kennel. I say kennel 
because it is a useful word, but am far from suggesting 
that toys of any kind should be kept in the way under- 
stood by " having a kennel " among larger dogs. The 
breeder who succeeds best is invariably the one who keeps 
one or two, or even four or five, pet bitches, running 
about the house enjoying full liberty and all the happi- 
ness of personal favourites, with, it may be, a dog also 
of the party. The breeder who is most troubled with 
skin complaints, distemper, lengthy vet's bills, and all 
the expenses, such as sick diet, which eat up profits, is 
the one who has built or fitted " kennels," no matter 
at what expense, and filled them with dogs. 



ON BREEDING 5 

CHAPTER II 

ON BREEDING 

VERY small bitches, and especially those belonging to 
certain breeds which are known to be " shy/' are not 
only often reluctant to breed at all, but are not infre- 
quently very indifferent mothers, while there are great 
risks to the bitch in pupping where the sire is larger 
than herself, or where larger dogs occur in the imme- 
diate ancestry on either side. For these reasons, brood 
bitches are always wisely chosen of medium size, and 
mated to very tiny dogs. In all the breeds which come 
under the head of toys, smallness is a desideratum, tut 
the practice of inbreeding which has been extensively 
resorted to cannot be too highly condemned ; while the 
equally mistaken idea of attaining this end by under- 
feeding puppies has also contributed to the weakliness 
of constitution which is an immense drawback to some 
breeds. Reckoning size by weight is another faulty 
practice much against the true interests of toys, which 
we want to be small and healthy at the same time ; for 
a very tiny dog, if compact and sturdy, may weigh much 
more than a leggy specimen which, to the eye, seems 
half as large again. 

A bitch from 5 Ibs. to 7 Ibs., if, as I said before, of a 
small strain, may be safely used for breeding, and the 
smaller the dog the better, provided he is healthy. 
The plan of sending away bitches to a stud dog saves 
the expense of buying a dog of one's own ; the sire's 
wins help to sell the puppies very materially, and the 
good offices of his owner may generally be reckoned 
upon to assist the novice ; but there are other facets 
to the question. 

These tiny dogs, which are frequently exhibited, are 
often very unreliable sires ; they work too hard, and 
their owners are sometimes very indifferent as to 
whether the visiting bitches are satisfactorily attended 



6 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

to. True, the terms always do, or certainly always 
should, include a second visit free if the first proves 
fruitless, but there is the loss of time, the disappoint- 
ment to the owner, and sometimes to the little bitch 
herself, who may have been quite anxious to breed and 
not have had a fair chance, and the trouble and expense 
of travelling for her. On the whole, I am much inclined 
to advise the novice to, at any rate, begin by rearing up 
a male puppy of such breeds as Pekingese and Griffons, 
or the scarcer toy Bulldogs, and using it for the home 
stud ; for the other plan is less likely to result in disap- 
pointment when a little knowledge has been gained of 
the kennel world in general. This, of course, unless 
the whole thing is gone into under the aegis of some 
experienced owner, as before suggested. Some little 
bitches are exceedingly capricious, and will not take 
the least notice of a strange dog, where they would 
willingly mate with one they knew and liked ; others 
are so upset by a journey and a strange place as to be 
useless pro tern. ; others, again, instead of being ready to 
breed twice a year, as is the usual habit of female dogs, 
may only come in season once in twelve months, and then 
but fugitively. In such cases it is a positive necessity 
to have a dog on the spot. Where a sire must be 
chosen from among strangers, his points should correct 
any in which the bitch is deficient ; your toy pug may 
have too small a head, with little wrinkle you must 
look for a dog with good head properties as her mate ; 
your Pom may be long in back, and you must seek a 
male with the opposite quality, and a plume well over 
and touching his frill. 

The first puppies of two young dogs are generally 
larger than the parents, but I do not believe the theory 
often advanced that the first litter is always the best. 
Puppies by a very old sire are usually small. 

A toy bitch, if sent away, should be carefully packed 
in a roomy, warm basket ; the provision of draughty, 
tumble-to-pieces baskets is false economy, both for 
show and breeding purposes. If possible, a toy dog of 



ON BREEDING 7 

either sex should have a cosy little basket kennel, with 
a door, which it can use at home as a sleeping-place, 
and in which it can travel ; the basket can be fitted 
with an outer case of wood for greater security, but the 
dog will stand the journey much better if it is in a 
familiar basket. Something with a peaked or rounded 
top should be chosen ; the ventilation being safer in 
this, as flat-sided and flat-topped packages may be so 




GRIFFON BRUXELLOIS. 

" Sparklets" the property of Miss Johnson* 

crowded upon with others in a guard's van as to suffo- 
cate the inmate. 

The usual period of willingness to breed in a toy 
bitch is, more or less, one week. This is preceded by 
about a fortnight's preparation, a week or so of gradual 
enlargement of the parts concerned, and a week of a 
coloured discharge from the uterus and vagina. Either 
or all of the stages may last a longer or shorter time ; 
but three weeks is generally accepted as the period. 
No attempt at mating the bitch should be made during 
the first two stages ; it is when the discharge begins to 
cease that she is ready, and the correct judging of this 



8 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

time is what chiefly puzzles amateurs, though after 
they have once been through it they will not find any 
difficulty. As a rule, bitches are sent away too soon, 
and as the conveniences for keeping them at the stud 
dog's house are often few, they are cooped up for day 
after day, and may become quite " stale " and dull 
before the real mating time comes a poor prospect. 
If the two dogs are in the house together, the male 
should be kept entirely away from the female from the 
very beginning of her attraction for him, until she is 
ready, otherwise he will worry her incessantly and 
become himself ultimately indifferent and useless in 
the matter. Toy dogs should never be left to them- 
selves in breeding matters ; it is highly dangerous to do 
so, especially if they are young and inexperienced, and 
I strongly advise the beginner either to get some ex- 
perienced breeder to overlook matters and give advice, 
or failing this, when the female is ready, to send the 
two dogs for a few hours to some kind and sensible 
veterinary surgeon. They should be allowed to be 
together twice, either on consecutive days, or with a 
day between. 

Once mated, the little toy bitch must be petted and 
taken good care of : not overfed, but given plenty of 
good, nourishing food, and systematically exercised. If 
she is in pup it will become evident about the fifth to 
the seventh week. Some dogs show it much more 
than others ; whether she has puppies or not, she will 
have the natural provision of milk for them. If she 
does not pup, she may very likely come in season again 
in half the usual time. A failure to prove in pup is 
generally evidenced by a time of great heaviness and 
dulness, the bitch sleeping a great deal, getting very 
fat, and decidedly stupid ; under these circumstances 
give her extra exercise and one or two small doses of 
sulphate of magnesia in food, to ward off skin irritation, 
a not uncommon correlative. People are far too apt to 
decide that " missing " is the bitch's fault ; certainly 
she is apt to miss if she is too fat at the time of mating. 



THE TOY BITCH WHEN PUPPING 9 

and Nature often, and very sensibly, arranges that she 
shall do so when she has been regularly bred from 
at her seasons for a number of times ; but outside 
these occasions it is quite as often the dog's fault as 
not. 

A question which is frequently asked is as to the 
desirability or otherwise of giving a toy bitch worm 
medicine, or an aperient, while she is in pup or just 
before her babies arrive. It is as well to give one mild 
dose of worm medicine about the end of the third week, 
if the bitch is known to be troubled with these parasites 
to any great extent ; but it would be much better 
to have dosed her before her breeding time came on. 
As to the aperient before pupping which we often see 
advised, it is a totally unnecessary interference with 
Nature, and when castor oil, a violent irritant to dogs, 
is employed, it is a sheer piece of cruelty, likely to 
have very bad effects. 



CHAPTER III 

THE TOY BITCH WHEN PUPPING 

Too much interference is generally alternated in the' 
case of dogs with a disregard of their natural feelings 
where the arrival of puppies is concerned. It is quite 
natural that the little bitch, feeling distressed and 
uneasy, should claim a great deal of notice and atten- 
tion, and if she has been made a pet of she will expect, 
and deserve, to be allowed to have her puppies in her 
mistress's dressing-room or some similar luxury ; in 
which she should be indulged. But once she has got 
over the preliminaries, which I will presently describe, 
she should, if possible, be left to herself as far as manual 
assistance goes. Nature will bring the puppies into the 
world far better than our clumsy hands, and the merest 
little tyro of a year-old bitch generally possesses the 
marvellous instinct teaching her to put her babies 



io A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

comfortably afloat on the sea of life. The disregard of 
a pet dog's feelings at which I have hinted may take 
the form of sending a tiny bitch out to the stable to 
pup under the care of a coachman or groom, and this 
may or may not be cruel according to whether she has 
any affection for the man or any knowledge of her 
temporary quarters ; personally, I should consider it 
an unkind thing to do under any circumstances. 

The beginning of the toy bitch's trouble is apparent 
to her owner almost as soon as to herself. She pants, 
and runs about excitedly, scratching here and there, 
making wildly impossible and absurd nests for her 
puppies in all kinds of unsuitable places. This may last 
for days, but is generally only done for a few hours 
before the puppies arrive, which, by the way, will be 
nine weeks after mating. Some bitches shriek in a 
very distressing way before they pup, and, as a rule, 
food is refused, and the little mother that is to be is 
often sick. No anxiety, however, need be felt. As 
soon as she really means business she will quiet down 
and settle in the place prepared for her, which by choice 
should be a big, deep arm-chair, with a white blanket 
any old thing will do that is clean folded in the seat 
of it, and over this an old cotton sheet, likewise folded, 
and so secured that the bitch cannot scrabble it up in 
the foolish endeavour to improve human bed-making 
which always possesses dogs, and, if indulged, lands 
them in desperate discomfort on the top of a kind of 
volcano of rags ! 

In nine cases out of ten a bitch chooses to pup in 
the night, and the hours often seem very long, while 
she may lie and sleep in evident uneasiness, getting up 
every now and then to make her bed, and panting as if 
exhausted. It is quite safe to leave her in this condi- 
tion for twelve hours, but if by that time she seems to 
be getting weaker and no puppies have come, the vet's 
services should be requisitioned. Probably she will 
not eat, but she may be offered a little cold milk. On 
no account give her anything hot, externally or inter- 



THE TOY BITCH WHEN PUPPING u 

nally, and do not be tempted to do anything whatever 
to her ; the only interference which is ever excusable 
is the application of a very little sweet oil or vaseline 
externally, which she will lick off, and which does no 
harm and no good, in my experience. 

If help is called for at all, it must be the skilled aid 
of a surgeon ; any other is worse than useless. 

The puppies are born singly, and if a bitch has a 




FRENCH TOY BULLDOG. 
" La Reine des Roses," owned by Mrs. Townsend Green. 

large litter they generally come in twos and threes, 
with a very short interval between the items of each 
brace or trio, and a long rest between the batches. 
The first services the mother has to render her babies 
are to free them from the bag of membranes in which 
they are born, and to bite the cord which joins each 
puppy to the afterbirth a fleshy substance which comes 
away with or shortly after it. All animals intensely 
dislike being watched while they perform these opera- 



12 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

tions ; but every bitch who is anything at all of a mother 
will manage them perfectly. Next comes the licking 
of the puppies, which have been enclosed each in its 
membranous bag full of liquid (the liquor amnia), 
and are consequently dripping wet. Here is the crucial 
test : a good mother licks her babies until they are 
warm and dry, then feeds them, and snuggles down 
with them into a contented heap of intense happiness. 
A bad mother, on the contrary, leaves her poor infants 
to dry as best they can, a process which invariably 
ends in their developing a kind of infantile skin com- 
plaint, which appears like a scab of cheesy substance 
attached to the roots of the hair. It grows away with 
the hair by degrees, and gets well without treatment, 
but is ugly and disfiguring for the time being, and a sad 
evidence of incompetence on the part of the mother. 

When the family have settled down, and the puppies 
are dry and comfortable, it is time to give them a little 
attention. Have a saucer full of nice, warm milk- 
gruel, made with patent groats as daintily as for an 
invalid, and let the mother drink it, which she will 
be sure to do with gratitude ; she may have more 
at intervals during the first day. Then roll away the 
soiled folds of sheet from under her and the litter, 
which can now be done without disturbing them, and 
leave them cosily ensconced on the clean, warm blanket, 
which has been all the time underneath. 

A little later the mother may be put out into the 
garden for a few minutes, not more than two or three ; 
but she must not be allowed to get chilled. After the 
first day she should go out for a little walk morning 
and afternoon, the time of her absence to be gradually 
lengthened as the puppies grow older. 

Until they begin to crawl, valuable toy puppies are 
much safer and better upstairs in a big chair as described, 
or in a flat basket with a folded blanket at the bottom 
set upon the chair, than they can possibly be in any 
stable or in the kitchen premises, for, no matter how 
warm, such places are draughty too. There is abso- 



THE TOY BITCH WHEN PUPPING 13 

lately nothing about a litter of little toys, if healthy, 
to be in the least offensive anywhere, and a good mother 
will keep them in the very pink of perfection for nearly 
a month under such circumstances. 

Where a poor or weakly mother is concerned, and 
where the puppies are restless, squall, and seem damp 
and comfortless, it is another matter. By constant 
attention as to the changing of the bed, partial hand- 
feeding from a small old silver spoon with cream and 
hot water, and Plasmon or Lactol, half and half (better 
than milk, though warm milk will do), and a great deal 
of patience, the mother may be helped out and the 
puppies saved ; but where they are not valuable it is 
better to destroy all but one or two ; and where they are 
so, a good foster-mother offers them by far the best 
chance of life and health. There are people who make 
it their business to supply fosters, and one of these 
should be applied to as soon as possible ; taking pains 
to ensure, by careful examination on arrival, that the 
stranger has no skin disease and is free from objectionable 
insects. 

Small toy bitches sometimes have but little milk at 
first, but by giving warm food only for the first few 
days, and plenty of milk to drink, it generally comes all 
right, and so long as the pups seem fairly content, all is 
well ; the flow is sure to increase. Both before and 
after pupping there is generally a little diarrhoea, which 
is of no consequence ; but if it goes on beyond the second 
day after pupping, get the bitch on to her usual diet, 
with a little cold milk to drink, and stop all sloppy 
foods. Oatmeal, as gruel or otherwise, should never be 
given after the second day. A discharge, of mucus 
mixed with blood, is usual after pupping, and may 
continue for several weeks in gradually lessening amount. 



14 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

CHAPTER IV 

ON REARING PUPS 

AN indispensable adjunct in the rearing of valuable toy 
puppies, which, as a general rule, do far better in the 
house than in any stable or out-of-door premises, is one 
of Spratt's or Boulton and Paul's little houses and runs. 
As personal and vicarious experiences are all that any 
writer can adduce to support theory, I may be allowed to 
describe the procedure which has been found successful 
with my own puppies born, bred, and reared in house 
and garden as they are. 

Directly they leave the basket of their infancy (in 
which, par parenthese, I must say, I think them more 
delightful, helpless little soft morsels, than even when 
they begin to run about, show intelligence, and need 
feeding) they are introduced to one of these useful 
abodes, comprising a sleeping house, provided with a 
cosy blanket, freely washable and often changed, and a 
little wired- in run about 4 ft. by 2 ft. The bigger this 
the better, of course ; and if it has a floor, as some 
have, pierced with small holes and draining into a 
removable tray to be kept full of earth, or sawdust, it 
will be well. Mine is a humbler affair, floorless, and 
stands on a piece of oilcloth, covered with a large sheet 
of brown paper, which can be daily renewed ; yet it 
answers its purpose very well. In this, with outings 
two or three times a day, for variety, the puppies live 
until they are seven weeks old ; the mother, loose about 
the house, visiting them at her inclination and sleeping 
with them. At between three and four weeks old they 
must be taught to lap, which is easy enough with some 
pups and difficult with others. Warm, boiled milk 
should be the only addition to what the mother gives 
them until they are over a month old : it is a mistake 
to hurry puppies on to patent foods, bread and milk, 
and the like. Do not let them have a saucer and upset 



ON REARING PUPS 15 

it, tumbling into it and getting themselves in a mess, 
to dry all sour and disagreeable, but hold their little 
heads one by one as they lap, for they will nod into the 
saucer and send the milk flying. 

As soon as the puppies are strong on their legs, they 
need more exercise and fun than the run can allow 
them, and now is the time to take them off the carpets, 
which they will never respect in after life if they have 
been allowed to treat them evilly as elderly babies. It 
is not a bad plan to let them live in the kitchen from 
this time forth, various things being provisional. One 
is, that the presiding genius will see to their little meals 
under your supervision ;* that is, you feed them four 
times a day, and she or he undertakes to see that no 
one else does so. Another, that the kitchen opens into 
the, or a, garden, and that the puppies can run there 
in the sunshine, in warm weather, and so insensibly 
learn manners ; yet another, that it is a warm, draught- 
less place, with a nice corner -for their sleeping basket. 
Some folks, whose lower regions do not answer this 
description, or whose servants are not amenable, may 
have an occupied stable at command, where the puppies 
can have a loose box or stall. This plan I do not re- 
commend, for toy pups do far better in constant human 
companionship ; but it, or the alternative one of 
keeping them in a room with an oilcloth floor, are all 
that offer themselves, failing the desirable kitchen. I 
have known toy pups do splendidly in a sunny little 
room, floored with cork carpet, provided with cosy 
sleeping boxes, and opening into a terrace-wa].k, where 
on al) fine and sunny days they were allowed to play ; 
but they were not too much left to themselves, and 
their apartment was carefully looked after, and brush 
and sawdust-pan kept going, just as, in my kitchen, the 
servants hasten to remove any unbecoming traces of 
their presence. This period, while toy pups are too 
young to be trained, too old for their mother to clean 
them up, and also so young as to require warmth and 
constant watching, is the troublesome one in their live's 



1 6 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

and the one in which so many of them die. Neglect, 
or dirty surroundings, are fatal to these little delicate 
atoms, which really call for the same attention we 
should give a baby ; monotony being kept shut up in 
one small room for hours or days and lack of fresh air, 
carry off many ; while sour milk, meals left about in 
odds and ends, irregular feeding, and lying to sleep in 
draughts, are all elements of danger. We want to give 
them warmth and dry ness, without stuffiness and over- 
heating ; we want to give them sweet, tempting, clean 
little meals, regularly, four times a day, just as much 
as they can eat eagerly and no more ; we want to give 
them a cosy day-bed to go to sleep whenever they feel 
inclined which will be often and, lastly, to let them 
have all the fresh air and out-of-door sunshine they 
can get without fear of chill. Thus it is that summer 
puppies, born in the spring, with all the best weather 
before them, do so much better than those which 
have the critical teething period to pass through in 
winter time. 

A toy puppy grows more quickly than, for instance, 
a terrier, and, of course, is adult far sooner than a 
big dog ; the short-haired varieties, again, coming to 
maturity sooner than the long-coated ones. A York- 
shire terrier is adult at a year, but does not get his full 
beauty of coat until he is two years old, or thereabouts. 
A toy Schipperke is, so to speak, grown-up at ten or 
eleven months, but goes on thickening and improving 
in shape, and probably increasing and hardening in 
coat for another year at lest. A Pom's jacket gets 
grander at each moult until he is three years old. ^As 
a general rule it may be laid down that the dog is a 
puppy no longer at ten months, when his teething is 
almost always entirely completed. This same teething 
is a tiresome process, comprising the change of the first 
set of wee ivories for the permanent forty-two which 
are to carry the owner through life. Nearly every 
puppy suffers more or less in the process, some from 
fits, some from skin irritation, some from colds in the 



ON REARING PUPS 17 

head and eyes, some from general feverishness ; but the 
troubles are ephemeral, and generally subside between 
whiles, returning as each big tooth is cut. What 
makes the worst trouble is when the first teeth are 
severally not shed, but remain in situ, a second tooth 
forcing itself up at one side of the lingering intruder. 
This condition is pretty sure to mean teething fits, of 
which more anon. Dentition begins about the fourth 




POMERANIAN PUPPY. 
At the ugly age. 

month, and once safely over, the dog may be considered 
well reared. 

Distemper, that is, the two diseases usually so de- 
scribed, are a bugbear, but it is enough to say that no 
puppy ought to have them. If he does, it is because 
some one has allowed him to get the contagion, by 
accident or carelessness ; left to himself, he could not 
indulge in it, for it is not, cannot be, spontaneous. 

Small skin troubles, such as puppy pox, in which 



1 8 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

the skin in the under parts of the body is red, and 
small pustules form and suppurate, after the manner of 
chicken pox though puppy pox is not catching often 
affect the strongest puppies ; and a pup which " teeths 
with a rash " is generally thought by breeders to be 
one which, if in the way of contagion, will not take 
" distemper " very badly, if at all, though whether there 
is any foundation for this opinion I cannot undertake 
to say. Personally, my puppies never have distemper, 
simply because they never have a chance ; but where 
other dogs from the house are going to and fro to 
shows they are almost certain, sooner or later, to bring 
it home to the babies. Some day we shall have a 
crusade for stamping these horrible diseases out, or dis- 
cover prophylactics, no doubt ; at present they must be 
looked upon as ill-luck which may never come our way. 
The training of puppies to the house is a task which is 
most easily accomplished by bringing them in from the 
kitchens, or wherever they live in a general way, to some 
sitting-room for a short time daily, and by degrees 
teaching them that each offence is instantly followed 
by dismissal to the garden, or out of doors. Beating 
little dogs is useless and unkind, but a mild scolding 
may be given and the infant be carried out by the scruff 
of its neck. The great thing is to make this sequel 
invariable, as dogs have a great sense of justice, and 
soon learn that they have done wrong in this case ; 
whereas, if they are allowed to do a thing three times 
and beaten for it on the fourth occasion they quite fail 
to understand the reason of the rebuke. 

Some breeds of toys are much easier to teach than 
others ; personally, I have found Poms comparatively 
difficult dogs to train to the house, and black-and-tan 
terriers are seldom altogether reliable ; while fawn pugs 
are generally averse to going out of doors in wet or very 
cold weather ; but patience and perseverance will do it 
in almost all cases. On the other hand, some little dogs 
take to the house at once, and give no trouble at all from 
the very first. A dog just off a journey, or strange to a 



ON REARING PUPS 19 

place, is not generally well-behaved just at first, so that 
the buyer of a puppy, warranted trained, ought to give 
it a little law before deciding that its education is not 
properly complete. I am sometimes asked if there 
is not some magical preparation which cures dogs of 
untidy habits, but am compelled to own that, in 
the present state of our knowledge, such a thing not 
only does not exist, but does not seem likely to be 
discovered ! ^Small puppies, under three or five months, 
are physically incapable of resisting any impulse, there- 
fore it is quite useless to attempt to train them too 
soon. Comparison between the sexes in this matter is 
sometimes made ; some preferring males as house dogs, 
and others females. I fancy there is not the least differ- 
ence, and certainly, given a promising and intelligent 
individual, a little boy pup is as easy to teach manners 
to as a little girl, and per contra. Much depends upon 
character ; here and there we find some toy dogs which 
have mean, cringing spirits, and these are generally the 
ones which won't go out in rain. They may be vul- 
garly described as " sneaks," and I would not keep a dog 
of this description. Mere timidity is a different thing 
altogether, and can be eradicated by kindness and 
judicious petting. The " sneak " is no companion, and 
should not be bred from. It will not follow well out 
of doors, is seldom a good mother, and is apt to transmit 
its faults of disposition to its offspring. 



CHAPTER V 

ON FEEDING TOYS 

IN feeding toys, variety is essential, and it is also de- 
sirable to give them food which will nourish and support 
the constitution without fattening them unduly, or 
heating the blood. It is far better to give a toy a very 
small dinner, as far as bulk is concerned, of roast meat 
cut up ; or a little boiled mutton and rice ; or a bit of 



20 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

cutlet minced, than to give a much larger dinner of rice 
and biscuit flooded with milk or soup. Big, sloppy 
meals are most undesirable, and the last meal at night, 
above all, should be dry. Half a penny sponge cake 
makes an excellent supper for a toy dog, or a couple of 
Osborne biscuits. Toy dogs should never be given any 
biscuit containing oatmeal or Indian corn meal, or 
peameal. These two are much used in dog-biscuit 
making, on account of their cheapness, and they are both 
too heating for toy dogs, and, in quantity, indigestible, 
although oatmeal is occasionally valuable, as in the form 
of groats, to be made into milk gruel and given to bitches 
after confinement. Rice, well boiled, is used as a staple, 
to give bulk to meals, by all breeders of Yorkshire 
terriers, and it is a valuable food, for this purpose, for it 
does not fatten, and is as easily digested as any cereal 
can be. Although I advocate small, dry meals as against 
large, sloppy ones, I do not mean to say that a certain 
amount of bulk is not desirable it is, for without it 
there would not be the natural stimulus of distension 
to the intestinal canal. But although the dog has a 
very large gullet and can swallow, and wishes to swallow, 
very large quantities as compared to its size, its stomach 
is not so very large in proportion, and the juste milieu 
enough and not too much is easy to ascertain. Eating 
between meals is quite as bad for dogs as for babies. 
They should be fed regularly, and restrained from picking 
up bits out of doors which may be poisoned, and are 
sure to be unwholesome." Many dogs have a shocking 
habit of scavenging, which often means that they are 
anaemic and harbour worms ; if a tonic and worm dose 
does not mend matters, a muzzle will. 

A toy dog of 5 Ibs. or 6 Ibs., which has a biscuit at 
breakfast time, a varied and tempting meal of meat or 
fish at lunch, and a piece of stale sponge cake in the 
evening, is being reasonably fed, and should have a 
healthy appetite. It is a mistake to feed only once a 
day, as such treatment is only suitable for dogs so far 
in a state of nature that they can gorge themselves to 



ON FEEDING TOYS 21 

their fullest and sleep for hours afterwards ; and then 
take hard exercise. 

It is quite a modern theory that the sins formerly 
laid to the charge of meat are all unproven, but it is a 
perfectly just one. Not only do skin complaints arise 
from malnutrition, or from improper feeding, or a too 
large amount of starchy food, but a cure for them is 
frequently found in changing the diet to one of raw 
or underdone meat only. This is modern veterinary 
practice, as set forth by the cleverest man of the day 
Mr. Sewell and others whose ability is unquestioned ; 
in the olden times the vet's invariable dictum, whether 
he understood the case or not and generally he was 
in dense ignorance as to whether mange, eczema, or 
erythema was the trouble was " No meat !" This 
idea, like others primarily due to ignorance, dies hard, 
and these are still to be found people who, ignoring the 
way a dog's teeth are formed, pronounce his proper 
diet to be farinaceous, notwithstanding the fact that 
he was created among the carnivora. Of course, we 
cannot keep a house pet, altered by centuries of evolu- 
tion, just as Nature kept him, on raw flesh for one 
thing, because he is not living the same sort of life ; 
but the conditions are not so different as to have turned 
a flesh-eating animal into a graminivorous one. 

I write, as I feel, strongly on this subject ; for many 
a time have I been vexed to see how obstinacy in com- 
pelling a dog to live on utterly unnatural food, has 
made a miserable creature of one that would have been 
happy, properly fed ; and the same applies to many a 
litter of puppies. 

It has long been a common habit to feed puppies on 
sloppy, farinaceous food, even up to the time when they 
are well on in getting their permanent teeth ; if this is a 
mistake with larger dogs, it is a grievous folly with toys. 
People feed their pups four or five times a day on watery 
bread and milk, Indian corn meal and oatmeal, and 
powdered biscuit, all slopped with milk ; they may even 
leave it about all day. Some of the puppies, the greedy 



22 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

ones to wit, nearly burst themselves, whereupon Nature 
rebels and relieves the pressure by means of diarrhoea ; 
others, dainty feeders, are sickened after one or two 
doses, and can hardly be got to feed at all. They loathe 
their food, and getting them on is a constant worry ; 
presently they begin to be often sick (this is the stomach's 
protest against being constantly distended with liquid 
food) and if they have, as most puppies have, the ova 
of worms inside them, these are immensely encouraged 
to develop, and lose no time in doing so. A nice pre- 
paration for the critical period of teething ! 

If those who find toy puppies difficult to rear thus, 
would forsake slops and feed them rationally, they 
would, I think, share the success of a number of breeders, 
whose toys are noted for their health and beauty, 
and whose methods I rely upon to back up my con- 
tention. Up to the time the puppy can use its first 
teeth, give it nothing but milk, pure, sweet, fresh, and 
warm mixed with plasmon or any other good dried milk 
powder ; cold milk will give the baby colic. Teach it 
to la.p from a saucer of warm milk ; either good cow's 
milk, if you can rely on getting it free from boracic 
acid ; pure cream and hot water to the thickness of 
milk ; goat's milk, best of all ; or, in the last resource, 
condensed milk, thinned with hot water. 

The latter must be the kind which is not over- 
sweetened, and not the kind which has had the cream 
separated. Up to six weeks I find my puppies do best on 
milk only ; when their little teeth are through, and their 
mother forsakes them, get them on to solids. A puppy 
loves to gnaw a lump of stalish sponge cake, or suck a 
rusk ; it comforts him to use his sharp little needle- 
points feeds and amuses him at once. Let him then 
have milk for breakfast and tea ; an Osborne biscuit 
broken up, a rusk of the kind known as " tops and 
bottoms," just softened with a little drop of milk, not 
made into a slop, or a bit of sponge cake, for his dinner 
and supper. At four weeks he may have a little minced 
chicken or boiled fish for dinner, or shredded boiled 



PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION 23 

mutton ; at two months he may be fed like his elders, 
but with no big lumps of meat. All meat given to 
puppies should be cut up finely, until they are six 
months old. As to bones, a big bone is good for a 
puppy to suck and gnaw ; but he must not have any 
kind of bone which he can swallow in whole or part. 
For grown-up toys any bones, but those of chicken t 
game, and fish, are a permissible treat, one at a time j 
and that time at least a week from the next or the last 



CHAPTER VI 

EXHIBITING AND PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION. 

ALTHOUGH the profits to be obtained from exhibiting 
are of a secondary nature, and relative simply to the 
influence exercised on sales and the way in which 
showing them brings dogs into public notice, it is well 
worth the while of the dog owner who has a really 
good little toy to exhibit it sometimes for the fun of 
the thing. At a show one can learn more about breeds 
and points, and all the little details which interest 
doggy folk, than is possible otherwise ; compare notes 
with other owners, and obtain many useful hints. I 
am sorry to say that we can also see a good deal going 
on which would be well suppressed, and get glimpses 
of the less attractive side of human nature which keen 
.competition and rivalry are apt to call forth, and which 
the socialistic mixture of all classes composing " the 
dog fancy " encourages. " Faking " dyeing pale tan 
bright, pulling out coat, or tweaking white hairs, dust- 
ing disguising powder into the stained jackets of white 
dogs, training ears to fall or stand erect (temporarily) 
in the desired way, with other little improvements, 
such as clipping the hair from the edges of Poms' ears 
and from their paws and legs, are all practices nobody 
would own to, but which nevertheless exist ; while even 
perfectly honest owners are able to bring their dogs 



24 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

to the front by legitimate methods which are unknown 
to the novice, and which she can learn from the initiated. 
As to the " cruelty " of showing, which Ouida so strongly 
deprecates, a word may be said. It is certainly not kind 
to send a little petted toy, accustomed to regular ways 
and the constant society of its owners to a show " on 
its own," unattended, and with no care but such as the 
show officials may feel disposed to bestow upon it 
often of a perfunctory character. On the other hand, 
if its owner takes it to the show, establishes it in its pen, 
visits it from time to time, feeds it, and takes it out of 
the show at evening time to spend the night with her, 
as can always be arranged, I fail to see the slightest 
cruelty in the matter in fact, many dogs enjoy being 
exhibited, and it is quite the exception to see a melan- 
choly face in the rows of pens devoted to the well-cared- 
for toy section. 

The first thing to be thought of where exhibiting is 
contemplated is getting the dog, or dogs, up to their 
very best form. A toy which is properly looked after at 
home ought to be always, more or less, in show con- 
dition, that is, as far as Nature's arrangements for the 
shedding of coat, etc., permit ; but a little extra care for 
a few weeks before a show is desirable. Short- coated 
dogs, which, par parenthese, should never be washed at 
all if it can be helped, must certainly not be washed 
for at least a fortnight beforehand, but the least pos- 
sible trace of vaseline or cocoa-nut oil may be applied 
to their jackets and polished off with a clean handker- 
chief ; while brushing and hand-rubbing the right way 
of the hair get up a beautiful gloss and sheen upon 
their coat, and a little milk to drink daily helps this 
effect. Eyes should be washed, and if noses are, as 
some, unfortunately, are too prone to be, dry, a little 
vaseline well rubbed in with the finger twice a day 
will remedy the defect. 

Long-coated dogs, of course, need much more 
attention. They must have extra combing and brush- 
ing, and, if dirty or flat in coat, but not otherwise, 



PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION 25 

should receive a tub about forty-eight hours before ap- 
pearing in the ring. For this, use soft, warm water, 
with, in the case of Poms, whose jackets ought to stand 
out well, a teaspoonful of powdered borax and a quarter 
of an ounce of dissolved gelatine to each two quarts of 
water. The soap used should be carefully chosen, and 
of the best Vinolia or E. Cook & Son's Toilet Soap for 
choice ; common soaps are most unsuitable. Many 
people also use and much like this firm's Improved Dog 
Soap. These stiff, stand-out coats are encouraged by 
habitually brushing the wrong way of the hair, and this 
is advisable, too, for the manes of Schipperkes. Flat- 
coated dogs, like Yorkshires and toy spaniels, often 
spend their lives, the former especially, in the intervals 
of shows, like summer fire-irons, " in grease " that is, 
their coats saturated with oil. To such an extent as 
this, the preparation may be left to the professional 
exhibitor (with whom, it is as well to remark, few in- 
experienced amateurs have much chance, as far as the 
Yorkshire terrier is concerned) ; but a little cocoa-nut 
oil, with the merest trace of cantharides, well rubbed into 
the roots of the hair for some weeks beforehand, encour- 
ages the coat to look its best. Great care is needful 
in washing white dogs, and only the best of soap should 
be used ; also soft water, with a little borax in it, and a 
squeeze of a blue-bag in the rinsing-water, to prevent 
the hair from showing a yellow tinge. Yorkshire 
terriers must not be rubbed up and about anyhow 
in their bath ; neither must Maltese nor toy spaniels ; 
the hair so carefully kept parted down the middle of 
the back in the two former breeds must be sponged 
downwards from the parting, while hot towels and 
warmed, soft brushes should be used for drying, in 
such a way as to preserve the habit of growth, which 
is such a point in these dogs. Rubbing " all over " 
also encourages curliness a fatal fault in the breeds 
mentioned and this is an additional reason for care. 
In washing dogs great pains should be taken to dry 
the insides of the ears thoroughly, and the bath, which 



26 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

most dogs so detest, will be robbed of half its terrors 
if the head is not soaped or soused ; it can be effectually 
washed with a sponge, thus avoiding the miseries of 
soap in nose and eyes. Washing, however, as an 
habitual thing, is most injurious to coat and skin, ruins 
the colour of black dogs, and should never be made a 
practice. Daily grooming with brush and comb will 
keep any properly-fed dog perfectly sweet and clean. 




BLACK PUG. 
.' 

11 Fiji" owned by Miss Hyde. 

Poodles are, perhaps, as troublesome to prepare for 
show as any dogs. There are, as yet, no corded toy 
poodles to speak of, but the curly toys are very delight- 
ful little dogs, deserving much more than their present 
popularity. Their shaving or clipping is, of course, an 
ever-recurring task, which must at no time be neglected, 
and is necessary once a month ; but, after the first time 
or two, it is not at all difficult to manage. The shaved 
parts should be gone over, the dog having been washed 



PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION 27 

the day before, with one of Spratt's Patent Poodle 
Clippers, a little machine exactly like a small horse- 
clipper, always working against the trend of the hair 
from the tail along the back to the middle of the body, 
and from the feet upwards. A pair of scissors, with 
curved-up points, will be needed for the face and toes, 
which are the most troublesome parts to do ; but actual 
shaving with a razor is only done as a finishing touch 
just before a show. It makes the skin rather tender 
and is the one part of the toilet, not needful for every- 
day attire, which calls for expert aid. After clipping, 
the skin should be well rubbed with a very little white 
vaseline oil, which brings up a nice gloss and prevents 
the dog from taking cold. There are various professional 
poodle clippers in London, among them a lady, who will 
visit dogs at their own homes for the modest charge 
of five shillings ; but country exhibitors are generally 
obliged to resort to home talent for the operation. 

The long hair is now fashionably arranged in a fluff, 
teased out with a comb, and well brushed until it stands 
out ; the forelock is tied up on the top of the head 
with a' big satin bow, and voila, la toilette de monsieur 
est fini ! the indispensable bracelet and smart collar 
being alone wanting. 

Entering dogs for a show is a simple enough matter. 
Having ascertained what show you intend to patronise, 
send a card to the secretary, whose address will be 
found with the advertisements of the show in the doggy 
papers, asking for a schedule. On receiving it, read the 
rules carefully, and also the matter relating to specials, 
and enter the dog according to the form enclosed ; if the 
show is held under Kennel Club rules, exhibits must 
first be registered with that body. If merely under 
Kennel Club licence, this is unnecessary. Occasionally, 
the reply to, or acknowledgment of, such registration, 
which is made on a form always sent with schedules and 
stud entry forms, and accompanied by an indispensable 
half-crown, is so much delayed that the novice-exhibitor 
trembles with fear lest her exhibit should be disqualified ; 



28 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

but such terrors are groundless so long as the entry 
has been sent in before the date of the show, all will be 
well. 

The next question is the burning one of escort. Per- 
sonally I should not like to send little toy dogs to a 
show without some trusted attendant, and I cannot, 
therefore, advise anyone else to do otherwise. 

Taking them oneself, with maid or man in reserve 
to leave in charge, is the most pleasant way, for all 
parties, of arranging matters, and the paraphernalia 
accompanying is somewhat as follows : 

A warm and comfortable travelling basket for each dog 
preferably a little house in which it can sleep at night. 

A campstool for the attendant. Standing about at shows 
is killing work, and chairs are not always obtainable. 

Coats for the dogs if the weather is at all cold, for exhi- 
bition buildings are almost invariably draughty. The 
Petanelle coats (sold by Spratt's), of French pattern, with 
storm collars, are specially warm and smart, and are also 
aseptic, and the Petanelle cushions are charming in every 
way. 

Some suitable food. Toy dogs will seldom eat what the 
show authorities provide, and are often too excited to take 
anything but what is specially dainty. A lunch-basket tin 
of small pieces of chicken or meat, ready cut up, with the 
dog's own little plate, will be found useful. Milk at shows 
is not always reliable, and if any is wanted it should be 
taken in a bottle, especially for litters. 

A brush and comb. A warm, large shawl. I say nothing 
about the millinery with which people often hang their pens, 
the satin cushions, etc., with which I can but say the dogs 
are often made to look extremely silly, but unless there is 
any rule in the schedule to the contrary, exhibitors are at 
liberty to provide anything which appeals to their taste in 
this line. The shawl, or blanket, is often useful for draping 
round wire pens to keep away draughts, and as such things 
cannot be got without much trouble once the show has 
begun, it is as well to be provided beforehand. 

Taking dogs out of the show at night can always 
be managed, usually on payment of a deposit ; and the 
trouble is quite worth while, for fatal colds are apt to 
be the result of leaving delicate toys to shift for them- 
selves in the colder hours of dark and dawn. 



PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION 29 

Leading into the ring is, of course, the crux of the 
exhibitor's anxiety, for now comes the critical moment 
will the dog show or not ? Some dogs are born 
showers brisk up, look smart and knowing, accept 
the judge's overtures graciously, and generally exhibit 
themselves to the best advantage. Others are variable, 
and cannot be depended upon ; will sometimes show 
well, and at other times if they are a little out of 
sorts, for instance, or do not like the look of their 
rivals in the ring will not do themselves justice. 
Others, again, obstinately, lower tail and ears, crouch 
and cringe, or, worst of all, roll over on their backs. 
If a dog, after several attempts at showing him, persists 
in such conduct, it is generally best to give him up 
as far as exhibition is concerned. But a good deal 
may be done beforehand to teach little dogs how to 
show themselves. They may be made accustomed to 
being led about in a chain, and encouraged to strain 
from the collar after a ball, etc. Also, they should be 
taught to receive attention from strangers affably. 

Just one word as to the exhibitor's own conduct in 
the ring may not be amiss. Sometimes old hands at 
showing are by no means polite to new-comers, sad to 
say, and will very probably endeavour to screen the 
novice, if good enough to be a rival, from the judge's 
eye, by thrusting themselves and their exhibits forward ; 
while, terrible to relate, such incidents as a sly poke 
with the foot, administered to a rival's shy dog, or the 
intentional treading on a toe, are not altogether unheard 
of. The novice should keep her dog well to the fore, 
disregard what other exhibitors are saying or doing, so 
far as strict politeness and good feeling allow, and, 
while not obtruding her exhibit on the judge's eye, 
try to get him to notice it in all legitimate ways. 

Speaking to a judge in the ring, and while acting, 
is a great breach of etiquette, unless some question 
is asked by him, which should be replied to audibly ; 
but most judges are quite willing to give reasons for 
their decision, or a candid opinion, if asked to do so when 



30 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

the judging is over. It is, of course, needless to warn 
gentlewomen against any show of feeling at being 
overlooked, etc. ; but the fact that lamentable exhibi- 
tions of disappointment do occasionally take place is 
one not to be denied, while, of course, strict justice is 
occasionally lacking. Still, taking things for all in 
all, a very little experience will enable the novice to 
take her proper place in the show world, where she will 
be sure to meet with much kindness and unselfish help 
such, at least, is my experience ; while exhibiting adds 
a zest to dog owning unobtainable by any other means. 
The principal shows where toy dogs are catered for 
are the Kennel Club Show, in October ; the Toy Dog 
Shows and Cruft's, generally held in February, at 
the Agricultural Hall ; with the shows arranged by 
the Ladies' Kennel Association, the best of which, from 
a toy owner's point of view, usually takes place in the 
summer, and with the provincial fixtures, such as 
Birmingham, Manchester, and Bristol, and numerous 
licence shows in all parts of the country, at all of which 
there is generally a fair classification for toys. All 
shows may be found advertised in the Illustrated Kennel 
News and other dog papers. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 

THE choice of a breed to take up is generally dictated 
by personal preference, and fashion has a large spoke 
in the- wheel. Just at present, the fashionable breeds 
among toys are certainly Pomeranians, or Spitz toys 
commonly known as " Poms," Japanese spaniels, 
Pekingese or Chinese spaniels sometimes called Chinese 
pugs, toy bulldogs, and Griffons Bruxellois. Of the 
choice of a breed for profit I have spoken before, and 
will now consider the question from the point of view 



THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 31 

of a lonely dame seeking a pet, or pets, and having no 
preconceived prejudices. 

The Pom, then, is a little dog, hard to get good, but 
really valuable when so secured. A good toy Pom 
means one as small as possible, certainly under 8 Ibs., 
and preferably under 6 Ibs., not long-legged and weedy, 
but short-backed and compact ; with tiny erect e"ars, a 
fine-pointed muzzle, small dark eyes, tail or plume, 
as it should be called well over the exact median line 
of the back ; small, fine, and delicate legs and feet, 
covered with short hair ; and last, but far from least, a 
profuse coat standing out well all over the body, and 
amplified about the neck with the characteristic frill, 
and at the backs of the hind legs with the criniere. 
Bright brown and chocolate are very much more 
common than they were a year or two ago, when either 
was scarce and much desired, but blacks are always 
favourites. Black-pointed sables (wolf-coloured Poms) 
seldom have good stiff coats, and, like the beautiful 
orange sables, are apt to be flat-coated, thus are not so 
popular ; while parti-coloured dogs depend for attraction 
upon their quality otherwise. Blues, which, unless large, 
generally have hairless ears, are very charming, and carry 
excellent coats, but are comparatively seldom seen. The 
usual faults of toy Poms are " apple-headedness " a 
term which explains itself scarcity of coat, coarseness 
in head or leg, tails badly carried, big ears, or protuberant 
eyes, legginess and weediness, or curliness. A wave in 
the coat spoils some from a show point of view, and 
though washing with borax and water, and combing 
out with a comb dipped in a weak solution of gelatine, 
will temporarily remedy the defect, it spoils the desirable 
bushy look of a Pom to a great extent. 

Poms are capital little companions, faithful, exceed- 
ingly sharp and intelligent, and generally devoted to 
one person ; they are good with children if brought up 
with them ; but they are fussy and excitable little 
things, bark a great deal, and have nerves. I do not 
consider the character some people give them of snap- 



32 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

pishness at all justified by facts ; but here and there 
a sharp-tempered Pom may be found. Their quality of 
disdain towards strangers is one which ought to be 
considered a virtue in all pet dogs. They are not of the 
easiest dogs to train to the house, especially when kept 
in numbers, and are not always reliable in this way, 
mainly on account of their quick, nervous disposition ; 
but for cleverness, affection, and beauty, they have 
few, if any, equals among toy dogs, and they are never 
likely to lose their popularity ; a really good toy Pom is 
always immensely admired and courted wherever it is 
taken. Puppies are not now so easily saleable at high 
prices as was formerly the case, as so many people took 
them up that they have become plentiful : and it is not 
worth while to breed second-raters ; but a good Pom 
will still sell. 

Next to toy Poms I will mention toy Schipperkes, 
because, though they are not as yet so fashionable, 
and probably never will be, they resemble Poms in many 
ways. As house dogs they are eminently desirable, 
wonderfully clean and well-mannered, and like the 
Pom in cleverness and fidelity to one person, while they 
are much hardier and easier to rear and keep in good 
condition. They are not at all nervous dogs ; but 
wildly full of life and greedy for exercise ; their incessant 
activity vying with that of the merry little Spitz. 
They are decidedly " barky " and exceedingly inquisi- 
tive, good travellers, and dogs which settle themselves 
down anywhere, and are content so long as they are 
with the favourite " human " they specially possess. 
Schipperkes are extremely heavy dogs for their size, 
and quite a wee one will weigh four times as much as a 
Pom which hardly looks smaller. Both breeds require 
a meat diet and plenty of good food, which they work 
off by their active ways ; but the bulk of the Schip's 
meals should be larger. As a rule, Schips are very 
good-tempered dogs, and, like Poms, sharp followers 
at heel. They are, however, pugnacious little things, 
and have only the grand forbearance of bigger dogs 



THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 



33 



to thank for the prevention of many a tragedy due 
to uppish self-assertion. Black is their colour, and 
taillessness their most intimate quality ; so-ne, we are 
told, are born tailless, most are not ! Brown and 
fawn Schips are common enough in Belgium, the 
home of the race ; and we have now not infrequently 
classes for them over here ; while whites, which arc 
really fawns, exist, occurring in litters now and then 




SCHIPPERKE. 
" Fandango ," owned by Dr. Freeman. 

from a throwing back to some distant ancestor, and are 
really pretty dogs, though I confess the piquancy and 
charm of the blacks, with their sharply-pricked, thin 
ears, their rounded-off flank, hard, shiny coats, and 
dense masses of mane and culotte, the Schip's distinctive 
points, are to me lost in an " off-coloured " dog. Their 
faults, as toys, are soft, silky coats, toyish or apple or 
badly-shaped heads (that universal stumbling block), 

3 



34 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

" Pommy," quality of coat (there is no blemish on a 
Schip's escutcheon greater than a putative cross with 
a Pom), white hairs or markings, ears which are rounded 
at the tip instead of pointed, too big, or badly carried, 
short faces, unlevel jaws, spread feet, crooked or dis- 
torted legs, and long backs. The whole appearance 
of the dog should be very smart and cobby, intensely 
alert, and altogether clean and well put together, 
qualities difficult to describe, but which " sautent aux 
yeux." 

Toy bulldogs are yearly becoming more popular. 
They are absolutely ideal dogs as to temper and all the 
other qualities necessary for a pet and companion, and 
almost uncannily intelligent, but alas ! they are deli- 
cate beyond denying. They are hard to breed, and 
hard to rear ; few of the bitches are good mothers, 
while their babies have little stamina ; they are shy 
breeders moreover, and altogether need incessant care 
and watchfulness. If they can have this, well and 
good, and their puppies will sell immediately ; so that, 
as a source of profit, they may be recommended, always 
provided luck and a capacity for taking much well- 
directed pains are on the owner's side. The prices 
obtained for these dogs, if really small and of good 
strain, are somewhat high for the ordinary amateur, 
while a small bulldog bred from bigger ones, such as 
can be most cheaply obtained, in the way of a toy, is 
but a poor speculation, since her first litter will probably 
kill her. The limit of weight at which a toy bulldog ends 
and the bulldog proper begins, has been matter of con- 
troversy, and the original limit of some 20 Ibs. was found 
to present so many difficulties that many breeders 
desired to have it altered. An equal, or even greater, 
amount of discussion raged round the question of drop, 
rose, or bat ears that is, of upright or falling ones. 
Finally the sensible decision of having two clubs, one for 
toys in all respects like the large Englfsh bulldogs, and 
one for dogs of French origin, though now of English 
breeding, with upright or " bat " ears, to be called 



THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 35 

French toy bulldogs, was arrived at. The English type 
is now known as the Miniature Bulldog. 

Japanese spaniels are quite one of the dernier s cris 
of fashion.* With them I include Eekingese, as although 
the latter are hardier dogs altogether, and easier to 
manage, they are also Eastern, so making things even. 
Japs are pretty little dogs, of average intelligence and 
affection, if not quite equal in these respects to the 
first two breeds discussed. Up to the present " dis- 
temper " has been their chief scourge, and keeping 
them in numbers seems to be an invariable invitation 
for a visit from some pest, to the contagion of all which 
they seem peculiarly susceptible. Griffon breeders say 
that if a Griffon feels ill it dies, and this is in some 
measure applicable to Japs also. There is no reason 
why it should be so, for in their native country they 
are hardy enough, and the cause is traceable to in- 
breeding, occasioned by the difficulties put in the way of 
their importation both by the Japanese authorities and 
our own, and resorted to with the idea of keeping them 
small ; the delicacy caused by the hardships of the 
voyage, which they stood very badly ; to the pioneers 
of the race over here, and the rush for small sires, often 
too much used, and over shown. If breeders would 
buy young, unrelated puppies, feed them on meat, 
bring them up healthily, and so found fresh strains, this 

* Japanese Spaniels. The five rules of Japanese spaniel 
beauty, according to the Delhi Morning Post, are these : 
(i) The butterfly head ; (2) the sacred V ; (3) the bump 
of knowledge ; (4) vulture feet ; (5) the chrysanthemum 
tail. To attain the " butterfly head " and the " sacred V," 
a Jap must own a broad skull with a white V-shape up it 
(the body of the butterfly), the small, black, V-shaped ears 
forming the butterfly's wings. The " bump of knowledge " 
is a small, round, black spot between the ears. The hair 
on the " vulture feet " feathers to a point in front, but 
must not widen the slender foot, and to the eye of faith 
the beautiful, silky, plumed tail, tightly curled over the 
back, presents the semblance of the national flower, the 
chrysanthemum. 



36 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

delicacy could surely be overcome with comparative 
ease. In appearance, Japs are extremely fascinating. 
Their colours are black and white, red and white, and 
yellow or lemon and white the latter two combina- 
tions being the rarest ; their coloured ears, like butter- 
fly wings, the short-faced head between forming the 
loly, their heavily fringed feet, and their plumed tail 
making up a charming and piquant tout ensemble. They 
are frequently confounded with Pekingese, which are 




PEKINGESE. 
" Foo-Kwai oj Newnham" owned by Mrs, W. H. Herbert. 

coloured, red or yellow, with black markings, 
and whose ears are not set on at the same angle. A 
Pekingese pup is perhaps the very prettiest puppy going, 
before it reaches the lanky stage, which breeders of all 
toys, except perhaps pugs and Schips, know means the 
utter indifference, even scorn, of the uninitiated public. 
The prices of Japs rule fairly high, and a good puppy 
cannot be obtained, unless by special luck, for less than 
10 los. ; a larger female pup for a trifle less perhaps 



THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 37 

but such, if good in points, are quickly snapped up for 
brood bitches. Japs have the same toy weight limit 
as Poms 8 Ibs. and the over toy weight dogs are far 
hardier and easier to breed than the midgets. 

Griffons Bruxellois are quaintness personified, and 
their funny little characters, full of dignity and self- 
sufficiency, are indicated by their no less funny little 
exteriors. The characteristics of a good Griffon are 
smallness, hardness of coat, deep, rich red colour, huge 
black eyes, a fleur de t'te, the shortest possible black- 
ended nose, as flat as may be with the face (this appear- 
ance generally aided by the breeder, who presses the 
baby cartilage upwards at every opportunity), and fine 
and sound legs and feet. The tail is docked, but the 
ears may not now be interfered with a righteous 
rule. An undershot " monkey face " is the desidera- 
tum, and though sometimes shy breeders, these little 
dogs are well worth having, and make the best of 
house pets. 

Of black-and-tan toy terriers there is not much to 
be said, for the simple reason that they are at present 
quite out of fashion. A vague idea still, I believe, 
prevails that the bare and leathery, not to say mangy, 
appearance some of the former little creatures present 
about their appleheads and big ears, is a sign of good 
breeding ; indeed, I have often been seriously invited 
to consider the high claims of a spidery, ill-shaped 
atom so affected to distinction ori the score of aristo- 
cratic descent. 

In the show-ring things like this are not tolerated, 
and the really well-bred black-and-tan is not like the 
little abortions sold but seldom now, though frequently 
of old by itinerant vendors whose characters were far 
from being above suspicion, and by dog-dealers, as the 
crcme de la crcme of pet dogdom. The show black- 
and-tan toy is like a miniature Manchester terrier 
glossy of skin, long and neat in head, with small, dark 
eyes, oval, not round and goggling ; fine, well-made 
limbs, with the correct pencilling of deep, rich tan on 



3S A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

the toes. There must be no tan down the backs of the 
hind legs, and the ears must be neat and well carried ; 
the tail a whip. 

Yorkshire terriers, if small and well coated, always 
find a sale, and will never be without friends. I like 
them much as single pet dogs, but a kennel of York- 
shires is a life's work, and only the enthusiast can give 



YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 
" Trixie" owned by Miss O'Donnell. 

them all the care they need. A Yorkie must be brushed 
(lengthily) every day : it must be rubbed with oils and 
washes, especially when its hair is breaking, the process 
which turns the short-coated black-and-tan puppy into 
the full-blown blue-and-tan beauty of mature age. If 
the coat is to be done justice to, the puppy must, when 
necessary, be most carefully washed (though washed 



THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 39 

as little as possible), restrained from scratching by 
having little wash-leather socks kept upon its hind 
feet, and dieted with every attention directed towards 
the prevention of any skin disorder. No dog can 
carry a heavy coat unless well nourished, and the old 
idea that farinaceous foods sufficed for this is ex- 
ploded. To avoid anaemia, keep the blood pure and 
rich, and give strength, a Yorkie must have the 
nourishment of meat. Withal, it is a merry little soul, 
and if its coat can be to some extent sacrificed, a good 
companion, fond of outdoor life, very barky and lively, 
and tolerably affectionate ; but a really lovely show 
Yorkie is not a being for every day. The breed does 
not suffer much from " distemper," and, strange to say, 
in spite of generations of coddling and fussing, and 
breeding for smallness and coat, is a decidedly healthy 
one. The white Yorkshires, a new variety some folk 
have tried to push, is, I think, in no way especially 
desirable the Maltese can do all that is necessary in 
that line ; while the attempt to make " silver " York- 
shires popular, too, simply means that bad-coloured 
dogs without any tan (paleness of tan is the stumbling- 
block in many a Yorkshire's career), are classed by 
themselves and offered prizes. 

Toy pugs are, I think, invariably fascinating to those 
who have a liking for pug kind ; they are big pugs in 
little, and everyone knows the points of a pug. My 
own toy fawn pugs loved their comforts too much to be 
perfect dogs for companioning a person of active out- 
door habits, but they were sweet-tempered, gentle 
ihings, and, as such, to be commended. Pugs as a 
race seem strangely apt to skin trouble, and the toys 
are no exception. I have not seen many really good 
and very small fawn toys, but there are some, and 
where a pug is to be bought, a toy is really most de- 
sirable. They make good house dogs, and are seldom 
or never noisy, while those of a comparatively active 
strain, bred to plenty of outdoor fun, and not indulged 
in the greediness which, alas ! is generally a feature 



4 o A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

in their character, need by no means acquire the stout, 
snoring wheeziness which some folk think an elderly 
pug cannot escape. All the same, I can but say that 
I prefer the black variety on the whole, for they unite 
the sweet temper, faithfulness, and gentleness of the 
fawns with an untiring energy, to my mind one of the 
best qualities a dog can possess. They are also hardier, 
less subject to " distemper " and kindred ills, and very 
alert and intelligent. One merit, if such it be, they 
do not share with the fawns the latter are not ex- 
pensive dogs, for they are almost always good mothers 
and prolific breeders. Not that the blacks fail in these 
respects, but as yet they are comparatively dear that 
is, the really good ones. Head properties make much 
of their value just now, for a good-headed black pug, 
with a broad skull, large eyes, and plenty of skin and 
wrinkle, is not in every litter, and narrow skulls are 
much disliked, though Nature, with characteristic 
contrariety, seems to rejoice in producing them. 

Pugs cannot stand heating foods any more than 
Yorkshires, which agree with them in doing better 
upon boiled rice as an addition to meat to make needful 
bulk, than upon any other farinaceous food. Next 
to it in value comes wheat meal ; oatmeal and Indian 
corn meal will surely bring skin disaster. Lean meat, 
underdone for choice, fish, and chicken, may be varied, 
to make the meals, with a small amount of the needful 
staple as bu'k. 

Toy spaniels in general are not difficult dogs to 
deal with. They are faithful and extremely affec- 
tionate dogs, and the Blenheims make good country^ 
pets, having often a considerable amount of sporting 
instinct, even when they come of stock which has been 
kept for show only for many years. The Marlborough 
Blenheims are, of course, examples of the sporting 
Blenheim, though they are not correct in show points ; 
and there is no reason why one of these dogs, toys 
though they be, and fit to win, should not be a good 
little country companion. For towns, white long- 



THE CHOICE OF BREEDS 41 

haired dogs are not to be recommended, because of the 
occasional washing, which is a vexation alike to dog and 
owner. The colouring of the Blenheims is very taking, 
and one with all the show points, spot on the head 
included, is sure to be admired ; but toy spaniels, as 
a race, the Jap and Pekingese excepted, are very much 
in the hands of professional exhibitors, and but seldom 
now seen as pets. The black-and-tan King Charles is 
inclined to be rather a silly dog, pretty enough, but 
not " brainy " ; a loving little thing, but unintellectual 
such, at least, is my experience of him. The faults 
of both breeds are generally too much leg, long heads 
and noses, instead of the big round skulls desired ; 
small eyes, and curliness the latter a direful mistake. 
The Prince Charles, or Tricolour, is the King Charles 
over again in three colours black, tan, and white ; 
and the Ruby is, as its name implies, all red ; rather 
scarce, this is, to my mind, the prettiest of the toy 
spaniels. All are very susceptible to damp and cold, 
and should be carefully dried, especially as to the feet, 
after being out in rain or mud. They are sweet dogs 
in skin, and seldom smell " doggy " a great virtue. 

Maltese have a good many friends. These are 
the oldest of all lap dogs, and a good specimen, 
with perfectly straight hair which is, however, but 
seldom found is really a thing of beauty. They 
should be treated like Yorkshire terriers, except that 
some of the ever-recurring tubs may be avoided by 
dusting flour or violet powder (pure starch) into the 
coat and well brushing it out again. They are often 
spoiled by brown noses, which are a great handicap, 
and also by the brown marks caused by running of the 
eyes, which are a great disfigurement in a white dog. 
Here I may break off to remark that these marks 
would also spoil white toy Poms, but for the fact that 
white toys of that breed are scarce. Breeders have 
done their best to get them, and a good many small ones 
under 6 Ibs. have been bred, but the tiny whites 
shown are generally deficient in some point. Of toy 



42 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

whites, over 6 Ibs. and under 8 Ibs., there are now many, 
and good ; especially in a certain west-country kennel ; 
but some of the best are dangerously near the limit of 
weights. 

The " tear-channels " which led to this digression 
can be helped not to exist by using a boracic acid lotion 
to the eye ; but the stains are often ineffaceable. 



CHAPTER VIII 

AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 

Anaemia a condition of general depression in health, 
with impoverishment of the blood is of all serious 
diseases the most common among dogs. It is this 
condition that causes dogs to have worms ; it is this 
deficiency in the blood supply, both in quantity and 
quality, which brings about ninety out of every hundred 
cases of skin disease. The original cause of the disease 
in toy dogs was the way in which they were, and un- 
fortunately often still are, kept, fed, and housed. A 
number of dogs kept together in some artificially-heated 
building, confined in small pens, obliged to breathe 
impure air, and fed on Indian meal, biscuits, oatmeal, 
and other cereals, with little or no meat this is kennel 
life, and a splendid foundation for anaemia. We all 
know how worms and eczema and other skin troubles 
beset toys kept " in kennels," but not until the know- 
ledge has caused people to give up keeping them thus, 
and handing on hereditary eczema and hereditarily 
vitiated blood to their puppies, shall we get rid of the 
inherited tendency to poverty of blood which makes 
so many toy dogs possessions of anxiety rather than 
sources of satisfaction to their owners. 

If a law could be passed obliging all dogs to receive a 
suitable daily allowance of good, fresh, underdone meat, 
and abolishing farinaceous feeding altogether, even for 
nve years, it is not too much to say that at the end of 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 43 

this time ezccma in its more common forms would have 
died out, worms be the infrequent exception rather 
than the rule, and " distemper " would have ceased to 
be a thing of terror. 

It is extraordinary how ignorant educated people, 
otherwise well informed, can show themselves on this 
subject. I have repeatedly received letters in which, 
after detailing a diet of milk puddings, oatmeal porridge, 
vegetables, bread and gravy, and so on, the writer 
gravely adds the assurance " But I have never given 
a farinaceous diet !" Green vegetables and such starchy 
vegetables as potatoes are absolutely useless to dogs, 
and so indigestible as only to rank second to absolute 
poisons, like carrots and turnips. No dog can get the 
mineral salts necessary to healthy blood out of oat- 
meal, Indian corn meal, or any other meal, nor out of 
a little iron-hard, dried gristle or some similar substance, 
such as appears in some so-called " meat " foods. It 
can only get these substances out of its natural and 
proper food meat. Puppies fed on meat from the 
time their teeth can bite it do not have anaemia, and 
are consequently free from skin trouble : their blood 
is rich and pure, and they do not harbour worms. I 
only ask any reader who doubts these statements to 
try the very simple experiment of separating a litter 
at seven weeks, and feeding half the pups on meat, of 
course varied, cut up small, and given in moderate 
quantity three times, and subsequently twice, a day, 
with a very small proportion of wheaten flour-stuff 
given merely as a treat and variety, in the form of small 
sweet biscuits or sponge cake, to afford the needful 
bulk to the meals. No gravy, milk, vegetables, nor 
any liquid but water to be given. The other pups in 
the litter can be fed on the old, artificial, unnatural 
plan of constant, large, sloppy meals of milk food. If 
the conditions are otherwise equal plenty of fun, sun- 
shine, and exercise being given the difference between 
the two sets of pups will probably be quite sufficiently 
marked to uphold my argument, with the further addi- 



44 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

tion that the meat-fed puppies will be found a good deal 
less objectionable in the house before their education 
begins, and infinitely easier to train, than their brethren 
on farinaceous diet. 

In cases of anaemia, as shown by skin trouble, bare- 
ness round the eyes, poor or capricious appetite, lan- 
guor, unpleasant breath, thinness, and a general look 
of unthriftiness, a liberal meat diet is the first essential, 
and plenty of fresh air not necessarily hard exercise, 
for which the patient is generally unfit the next. 
A tonic is always desirable, and iron the most suitable. 
There are several forms of this useful drug. Reduced 
iron can be given in very small dosage ; sulphate of iron 
is cheap and useful in pill form : both of these have a 
tendency to constipate. The saccharated carbonate 
of iron is a beautiful preparation that does not con- 
stipate is, indeed, a little laxative in action. It is 
a powder, tasteless except for sweetness, and will be 
taken readily enough if sprinkled on meat, or it can be 
made into pills with the addition of a tonic bitter, as in 
the form of the Kanofelin tonic pills. It is the most 
expensive of the forms of iron, but that is not saying 
much, as all are absurdly low in price. The dose for 
a toy is from two to four grains twice a day, in, or imme- 
diately after, food. Cod liver oil is a useful medicine 
in bad cases of anaemia, especially where, by reason of 
having or having inherited, this habit of body, a long- 
haired toy is always poor in coat. Some dogs never 
grow coats, merely because they have not the strength 
to do so, and others inherit sparseness of hair. But 
if there is any hair in reserve, a course of cod liver oil 
will help it on, and better far than plain cod liver oil 
is its preparation with malt. Cheap cod liver oil, how- 
ever, is horrid, and should never be given. It will only 
act as a purgative, and be worse than useless. Nor 
should a dog ever be forced to take this substance if 
he has a dislike to it. But if the anaemic, scantily- 
coated patient will take it readily, a teaspoonful of some 
good brand of cod liver oil and malt extract, besides 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 45 

three grains of saccharated carbonate of iron twice a 
day, with meat diet, will make a most marvellously 
different dog of him in six weeks' or two months' time. 

It is quite useless to give any tonic for a week or ten 
days, or irregularly. It must be given for a long time 
and with perfect regularity, or it does no good what- 
ever : it must have time to be absorbed into the system, 
to permeate it, and be taken up by the blood. 

Bad Teeth. The existence of canker in dogs' teeth 
is generally another consequence of bad rearing and 
farinaceous feeding. Meat - fed pups, from meat - fed. 
parents, have conspicuously good sound teeth, whereas 
among kennelled dogs it is not at all uncommon to find 
specimens of mouths cankered throughout, and this 
condition is certainly sometimes transmitted to the 
offspring. The teeth look deep yellow, or brown, the 
dental enamel is soft, and in bad cases they drop out. 
The gums are soft and spongy and pale. The disease 
being constitutional, little or nothing can be done to 
arrest the decay of the teeth, which luckily seems pain- 
less. The dog should be carefully fed on the most 
nutritious underdone meat, and the mouth may be 
washed out daily with a very weak solution of per- 
manganate of potash : just enough of the crystals to 
tinge warm water pink being used. The best way to 
perform this little operation one to which most dogs 
object very strongly is to get someone to hold the 
head, with the nose pointing downwards, over a basin, 
and to introduce the nozzle of a gutta-percha ball 
syringe between the lips at the back of one side, letting 
it enter that spot in the jaw where there is a hiatus 
between the lower teeth. Two or three squeezes of the 
ball will then wash out the mouth pretty effectually. 

This cankered condition of dogs' teeth may be brought 
about by the absorption of mercury into the system. 
A dcg which had been troubled with very obstinate 
recurrent eczema, known to be inherited from ill-reared 
parents, was apparently cured as by magic when sent 



46 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

to a veterinary surgeon, who dressed him all over with 
mercurial ointment. The improvement in his condition 
continued for about three months, when it was discovered 
that he ate with difficulty. His mouth being examined, 
the teeth, previously sound, were found to be like so 
much dark, yellow-brown leather, and the gums sore. 
The next development was in the form of a cancerous 
growth in the posterior nares, and so the poor animal 
died, a victim to a cruel " fake," for which the surgeon 
had obtained the credit of a cure. Such cases are not 
at all uncommon. 

Dental Caries, such as affects our own teeth when 
they decay and have to be stopped, occasionally, though 
luckily not often, distresses dogs. They may bruise the 
dental pulp inside a tooth by biting very hard on a bone, 
or by playing too roughly, and more especially by 
carrying stones, a very bad practice. The only thing 
to be done is generally to extract the tooth under 
chloroform, since it is difficult to find dog-dentists who 
will stop a decayed tooth. A dog with toothache, rubbing 
his face on the ground and crying, is a pitiable sight. 

Abscesses between or on the Toes are a form of 
eczema, and should be treated constitutionally, as sug- 
gested under the heading of Anaemia, eczema's usual 
cause. Dogs will worry these sores, and must be pre- 
vented from doing so by having the foot encased in a sock 
made of strong washed calico, tied round the leg with 
tape. Before putting on the sock, dress the sore with 
iodoform powder or zinc ointment. 

Docking Puppies. Being docked is not an ailment 
nor an illness, but as a very sad conclusion may be put 
to a valuable pup's life by the operation caielessly 
performed, it is as well to say a word about it. Docking 
should never be left until the eyes open and the nervous 
system is fully organized. At such an age it is a piece 
of gross cruelty and the risk of haemorrhage is enormously 
increased. Unless puppies are very weakly, they 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 47 

should be docked at five days old at latest. Happy 
is the owner whose Poms or Pugs require no such 
improvement ! The Schipperke owner has been es- 
pecially commiserated or vituperated, as the case 
might be, but as a matter of fact there is, in the hands 
of a competent surgeon, used to operate on these and 
other dogs, not one iota more risk or more pain or more 
difficulty than in dealing with a terrier. Docking 
should be done by a skilled veterinary surgeon, with 
proper antiseptic precautions. His hands and the 
strong scissors used are first made thoroughly antiseptic 
by washing in carbolic or some other antiseptic solution, 
and the operation can be done without the pup's losing 
any blood at all to speak of. The wounds are dressed 
with iodoform powder and tannic acid powder, mixed, 
and in one hour the mother, who should be sent out for 
a walk while the surgeon is in the house, will be admitted 
to them, and they will be sucking as if nothing had 
happened. Occasionally, owing to some idiosyncrasy 
of the individual, a puppy may bleed after docking, 
and therefore a careful watch must always be kept. If 
there is any haemorrhage, bathe with very cold water 
in which alum has been dissolved, and apply a styptic, 
as tannic acid or perchloride of iron. But it is always 
well to ask the operator to remain for an hour or so, 
until all risk is over. The bloodvessels very quickly 
seal up at their ends (to use untechnical language), 
and the tongue of the mother, when re-admitted after 
the necessary interval, will do no harm. Though 
docking is neither dangerous nor cruel when properly 
done on puppies so young that they have little or no 
sensation in their undeveloped nerves, it is a barbarism 
to let any ignorant person, as a groom or coachman, 
do it ; and the dog owner who will not sacrifice her own 
possible repugnance sufficiently to co-operate with the 
skilled surgeon in seeing it properly done, at least owes 
it as a duty to her dumb dependents to pay him to take 
all reasonable care, and bring an assistant to hold them, 
and stay until they are quite safe and comfortable. 



48 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

Bilious Attacks. A slight chill, in east-windy times 
of year, or from any undue exposure to cold, will some- 
times bring on a liver attack in dogs, while some are 
habitually subject to sick-headache after the manner 
of their owners. A bilious dog shivers, looks miserable, 
brings up a little yellow liquid or some froth, alter a 
good deal of retching, and refuses to eat. Such an 
attack is always easy to diagnose, because the nose 
remains, as a rule, cold and moist, while there is no 
rise in temperature. The same symptoms, with feverish- 
ness, would probably mean commencing serious illness, 
necessitating skilled advice ; but without rise of tempera- 
ture are not important, unless they resist treatment 
and continue for longer than about twelve hours. The 
patient should be kept warm, covered up before the 
fire if the weather is severe, and given a soft pill of three 
grains of carbonate of bismuth and one grain of bicar- 
bonate of soda, every four hours, until appetite returns. 

Loss of Appetite is a symptom which should never 
be disregarded. It may be quite right for the owners 
of sporting dogs to use the phrase so frequently heard : 
" Oh, if he won't eat, he's better without it," but want 
of appetite in a toy dog should never be a matter of 
indifference to the owner. It may, of course, arise 
only from previous over-eating, and over-fed dogs are 
certainly subject to bilious attacks which do not call 
for much sympathy ; but it is always desirable to 
assure oneself that nothing more serious is the matter 
before dismissing the subject. In cases where loss of 
appetite is the precursor and accompaniment of illness, 
as in distemper, it would be most unwise to leave the 
dog to itself, and by allowing it to go without food, 
pull down the vitality and give the disease a firmer 
hold. As a general rule, a dog may be allowed to miss 
one meal without much anxiety ; but, if a second is 
refused, inquisition should be made, and the tem- 
perature be taken, without loss of time. A clinical 
thermometer is a most useful adjunct in the dog-room, 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 49 

and any temperature over 100 degs. or 101 degs. the 
former the dog's normal one is suspicious. The 
easiest way of taking it is by inserting the instrument 
between the thigh and the body, and, as it were, holding 
these together, over it. Puppies will often refuse food 
simply because their gums are sore from teething, and 
here, again, it would be extremely foolish to let them go 
on in a state of semi-starvation. When a puppy is- 
seen to pick up his food with his front teeth, shake 
each piece, and turn it over indifferently, it is a pretty 
sure sign that he cannot eat comfortably ; if the natural 
process of cutting the teeth is in fault, all that need be 
done is to give minced meat and soft though dry food a 
sponge cake will nearly always be willingly negotiated 
and keep a watch to see that he gets enough to maintain 
him in good condition and pull him through the critical 
time ; if, as is sometimes the case with an older dog, 
a too-lingering first tooth is setting up irritation and 
needs extracting, the vet's services must be requisi- 
tioned, as it is not advisable for any amateur to try 
his hand at canine dentistry. The main characteristic 
of the " new " or Stuttgart disease, or of gastritis, by 
the way, is inability to take food, the mouth being 
ulcerated, in addition to stomach complications ; and 
here, again, commencing loss of appetite must be re- 
garded with suspicion. Simple biliousness is not 
common among properly-fed dogs, but is sometimes 
brought on in individuals by what I may be so techni- 
cally medical as to call idiosyncrasy to wit, inability 
to digest certain foods. Many toy dogs cannot eat 
vegetables, which of course are to all unnatural and 
very indigestible, and others are invariably sick if they 
are given milk, and the dog can no more help these 
peculiarities than human beings similarly afflicted. 
Biliousness, brought on either by over-eating, a chill 
on the liver, or some unsuitable food, is easily recognized, 
and here abstinence for a while is advisable. The 
patient will be chilly, probably having cold paws, and 
may be sick several times, producing only a little yellow 



50 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

froth ; most dogs eat grass and soon feel better, re 
quiring no medicine ; but if appetite does not return 
quickly, give a bismuth-and-soda pill every four hours, 
the proportion being three grains of bicarbonate of soda 
to one grain of carbonate of bismuth. 

Indigestion is by no means uncommon among toy 
dogs, and frequently leads to the odious habit of eating 
horrible things in the street, about which dog owners 
sometimes complain, and with reason. The presence 
of worms leads up to this habit, too, and where it 
exists they may be first suspected ; and then, if their 
existence is disproved, indigestion comes in as the 
likely factor. Its treatment is not difficult, but the 
owner must make up her mind to persevere, and to 
feed her dog herself no servant, no matter how care- 
ful, possesses judgment enough to deal with a case 
of this kind. Absolute regularity in feeding is neces- 
sary ; the meals must be small, yet very nourishing, 
and the dog should not be allowed to drink imme- 
diately after eating. A digestive tonic containing 
nux vomica is almost invariably useful, but it is not 
a medicine which can be prescribed at large, for nux 
vomica is in itself a dangerous drug, and acts much 
more freely upon some dogs than upon others, making 
it most unwise to prescribe " so much " for all dogs 
alike. With this proviso, I will give a prescription 
intended for a Yorkshire terrier weighing about 6 Ibs., 
which may be safely tried upon toys between 5 Ibs. and 
8 Ibs. weight, the quantity of this particular ingredient 
being reduced by one-half for dogs between 4 Ibs. and 
5 Ibs. and by two-thirds for toy puppies, upon whom 
its administration must be watched with extra vigi- 
lance : fy pulv. nucis vom., J gr. ; pulv. radix gen- 
tianae, I gr. ; carb. bismuthi, 4 grs. ; bicarb, sodii, i J grs. ; 
ferri carb. sacch., 3 grs. M. H. D. Exhib. cum cib. 
bis vel ter die. A pill somewhat similar, but in some 
respects superior to this, is sold as one of the Kanofelin 
remedies. 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 51 

The symptom of too great susceptibility to the action 
of strychnine (mix vomica) will be, in bold language, 
twitching and nervousness, and where these are ob- 
served to follow a dose it must be diminished or stopped 
altogether, and in this latter case the powder without 
the first ingredient may be tried. 

Disagreeable Breath and Eructation. Beta-naph- 
thol, given in pills containing J gr. each, is a valuable 
drug in cases of indigestion where eructation and 
disagreeable breath are noticeable. For toys under 
5 Ibs. gr. pills must be given ; one pill in either case 
to be given about ten minutes after each meal. The 
effect of the drug is simply to check the fermentation 
of the food and the consequent formation of foul gases 
in the stomach. Where this form of indigestion is 
accompanied by diarrhcea, salol may be given instead 
of naphthol, in the same doses ; but it and naphthol do 
not suit all dogs alike, though neither can do any harm, 
and if the patient is sick after a dose, the sign has been 
given that marks the treatment as unsuitable to his 
individuality. As in the case of human patients, the 
dog doctor may have to try several methods of treat- 
ment before he hits upon the cure. Pills are often 
troublesome to give, which fault cannot be found with 
powdered vegetable charcoal, to which few dogs make 
any objection when it is sprinkled upon their food 
and lightly covered with a few tiny bits of something 
very dainty ; but where the owner prefers to give 
medicine apart from the food, enclosure of powder in a 
capsule is always practicable. A simple and tasteless 
powder is included among the Kanofelin Remedies, 
and may always have a trial, given with the food, in 
cases of indigestion. 

The Bad Doer. Want of appetite for no par- 
ticular reason, except general debility of the stomach, 
is the annoying characteristic of the kennel - man's 
horror the " bad doer," who is characterised by 
thinness and bad coat. Here and there we find a 



52 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

thin little dog that nothing will fatten ; hardly ever 
hungry, and dainty to the distraction of his owner ; a 
dog who will not eat in a strange place or from an 
unusual plate, and who only grows the thinner and 
more miserable for what he does eat. He is an un- 
enviable possession, but we must make the best of him, 
coax him with small and frequent meals, for he will 
often accept a teaspoonful of raw meat minced, or a 
tablespoonful of cream, where he would not even look 
at an ordinary dog's meal, and get him up as well as 
we can for show with a daily new-laid egg, beaten up 
in a very little milk, and that useful and valuable dog- 
owner's aid, cod liver oil and malt. Most dogs will 
take this with a little tempting meat to help it down. 
Of course it must not be pushed at first, but given, 
to begin with, in very small doses, and gradually in- 
creased until our usefully typical 6 Ib. dog is taking a 
full teaspoonful twice a day. It is a wonderful hair 
producer. Cod liver oil alone, without the malt, is 
of much less use, and cheap preparations of either or 
both are to be sternly avoided ; in the nature of things, 
such a medicine cannot be cheap, if it is to be thoroughly 
good. And here, I may remark, that because we are 
only dealing with a dog is no reason why we should 
put cheap drugs of any kind into him. His system 
is just as beautiful and delicate in its balance as that 
of a human being, though his teeth and his digestion 
may be stronger such is not invariably the case by 
any means and the administration of impure or adul- 
terated medicine is just as great a cruelty to it as to 
the human machinery. To give a toy dog crude cod 
liver oil, imperfectly purified, because it is cheap, is 
like expecting to do fine carving upon oak with a hatchet, 
because it is oak and not satin-wood. 

Internal Parasites. In no case has modern progress 
in knowledge disclosed more fallacies, held formerly as 
firm beliefs, than where the internal parasites which 
for our present purpose, this being only a popular manual, 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 53 

may be classed as tape-worms and round worms of the 
dog are concerned. Only a few years ago, if a dog 
suffered from skin disease in any one of its several forms, 
" worms " were at once cited as the cause. Now we 
know or rather, those among us know, who either have 
some understanding of canine anatomy and physiology 
or will take the word of the scientist for it that worms 
cause nothing : they are not a cause, but an effect. 
They are a symptom of anaemia ; and as skin trouble 
almost invariably accompanies any severe degree of 
anaemia in dogs, skin trouble and worms are usually 
found together. We cannot, therefore, cure dogs of 
harbouring worms by giving expellent doses, no matter 
how glowingly advertised and boomed, of the various 
irritant drugs which act as vermifuges. We can only 
by this means temporarily drive out the enemy, which 
is certain to return, because the conditions prevailing 
in an anaemic intestine suit it perfectly, and encourage 
its increase, whereas in the healthy intestine it more or 
less shares the fate of food on being digested, and is 
incapable of rapid or sustained increase. The effect of 
an anaemic or vitiated condition of the blood-supply to 
the villi, or, in non-scientific language, digesting pores 
which exist all over the mucoid lining of the intestinal 
tract, is to prevent their throwing out those strong 
juices or digestive fluids which they normally produce. 
Their secretions are altered and weakened, and have 
no injurious effect on the parasites, which then in- 
crease rapidly. When, therefore, it becomes evident, 
by the appearance of short yellowish-white segments, 
generally about an inch long, and varying in breadth 
from a mere line to about a quarter of an inch, dropped 
about by a dog, that tape-worm exists ; or it is seen by his 
vomiting them up or otherwise, that he has round worms, 
which somewhat resemble earth-worms, what we have 
to do is to alter that condition of the general health 
which allows these pests to exist. In brief, we have to 
treat the dog for anaemia, which subject has been 
already discussed. It is, of course, occasionally pos- 



54 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

sible for a healthy, meat-fed dog to become accidentally 
infected by swallowing tape-worm ova, and in such 
a case a few of the parasites may be harboured for a 
considerable time, not increasing, but now and then 
making their presence manifest. Infection is possible 
by the swallowing of fleas, which are intermediate hosts 
of tape-worm, or by eating the insides of rabbits, which 
usually swarm with these creatures, or, in the opinion 
of some authorities, by sniffing the ova up through the 
nasal passages and subsequently swallowing them. As, 
however, one cannot always be certain that the appar- 
ently healthy dog is not a trifle below par, it is always 
well to treat him with a course of iron, giving the powders 
or tonic pills advised for anaemia for a month, and at the 
expiration of that period, when the system is toned up 
so that the worms' position is almost untenable, and 
their expulsion will be final, one or two vermifuge doses 
may be given. All sorts of quack remedies have been 
praised and boomed as infallible, but many are ex- 
ceedingly drastic, and some positively dangerous. Areca 
nut, so frequently advised, is a most violent irritant, 
actually poisonous in its effects on young puppies, 
and a very cruel remedy in all cases. Wormseed oil, 
an American preparation, possibly from one of the 
inulas, a family of plants known in English gardens, 
is sometimes an ingredient ; also such highly unsuitable, 
inert, useless, or dangerous substances as sulphate of 
magnesia, salt, or cowhage, with strong doses of san- 
tonine, a drug that should never be given in unknown 
quantity. A violent purgative action often accom- 
panies these secret remedies, adding to their danger. 
The intelligent dog owner should know what he is 
giving, and to some extent understand its action ; but 
in a country where quack, much-advertised medicines 
are largely given to children, I suppose it will be difficult 
to prevent their being also administered to dogs. In 
any case, no worm medicine whatever, of any sort or 
kind, other than an iron tonic, should be given to young 
puppies, no known drug possessing a stronger action 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 55 

than iron upon the parasites being safe for toy pups 
under three months old. After that age it is safe to give 
very small doses of oil of male-fern and absolutely minute 
ones of santonine. These are best combined in a capsule, 
in which form they can be given without distressing 
the patient, and a perfectly safe capsule after this 
formula is, among the Kanofelin remedies which are 
not secret, but are compounded after recognised 
formulae, and equally suitable for dogs or children 
in the purity of their drugs and safety of their action. 
If any of the popular advertised remedies are used for 
adults, experiment should be made at first with much 
smaller doses than are cited, and safety thus assured, 
for a microscopic dose will often act quite severely 
enough for the toy dog owner's purpose, and dogs are 
as variously sensitive to drug action as we ourselves. 

In very young puppies the bringing up by the mouth 
of round worms is not at all unusual, especially when 
they are pups born of " kennel " parents, dogs crowded 
together in numbers, insufficiently fed (although pos- 
sibly upon an excessive quantity of oatmeal and Indian 
corn meal), denied meat, and leading a completely 
unnatural life in every respect. It is rather a shock 
to an amateur when this occurs, but as a rule little 
anxiety need be felt, for if the puppy is properly fed 
upon small dry meals of a very digestible and nourishing 
nature, say two tablespoonfuls of good underdone 
rump-steak, or the same quantity of roast mutton, three 
times a day for a dog the size of a pug, and given a 
one-grain dose of iron with two of these meals, he will be 
pretty sure to grow out of his troubles. In any such 
case great attention must be paid to keeping up the 
strength of the patient, in order to tide him over the 
time when by reason of youth and his very tender little 
stomach, it is impossible to give him any stronger medi- 
cine with safety. 

Extreme thinness and loss of coat are sometimes 
attributed to that wonderful power worms, in old- 
fashioned eyes, possessed. Both of these symptoms 



56 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

are those of an anaemic condition, as is fcetor of the 
breath. Finally, the treatment of that over-rated 
bugbear in the way of diseases, " Worms," is easily 
summarised thus Meat feeding ; an iron tonic ; a 
vermifuge after the tonic course, and not before. 

After male-fern capsules it is quite unnecessary to give 
any aperient. Most inventors of " worm pills " and 
the like order castor oil to be given after their boluses, 
a terrible aggravation both to operator and patient. 

Aperients. Some people have an idea that it is desir- 
able to dose dogs periodically, on the quaint old " spring- 
medicine " principle, extended over all the year. No 
greater mistake can be made. A dog should never be 
given drugs of any kind unless really ill, and this it will 
never be in the direction indicated, if it is properly fed 
and regularly exercised. A dog's natural and proper 
food is meat ; but the stimulus of distension must be 
given to the intestine by adding some bulk of innutritious 
food to the meat. We cannot give quite enough meat 
to afford this stimulus constantly, because by doing so 
we should overload the system. In a state of nature 
dogs ate the fur and skins of their prey, like other 
carnivora : now we must give them a certain proportion, 
but only a small one, of biscuits made of wheat (not 
of oatmeal or Indian corn meal, which are too indi- 
gestible) or of brown bread, to provide bulk without 
nourishment. They may, if any aperient be absolutely 
necessary, have a meal of boiled liver, a teaspoonful 
or two of pure olive oil poured over a little meat, or 
given from a spoon, or some cod liver oil, which may 
be voluntarily taken, and is equally efficacious. Milk 
is very laxative, and sometimes, where there is no 
'biliousness, a small saucerful makes a good aperient. 
Always take a dog for his run at the same time of day, 
wet or fine, and never lose sight of the fact that a well- 
behaved clean little house-pet may bring upon itself 
a dangerous attack of constipation by its good manners 
if its appeal for a walk is ignored. 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 57 

Distemper. As a matter of actual fact, there is no 
such disease as distemper. There are two diseases, or 
two groups of diseases, both more or less contagious, 
which, for want of skilled diagnosis, are indifferently 
so named, but their popular designation is so firmly 
rooted that " distemper " will be with us to the. end of 
the chapter, and so long as the disease is properly 
treated it matters little whether we call it bronchial 
catarrh, gastro-enteritis, typhoid, or distemper. Per- 




TYPICAL JAPANESE SPANIEL. 

haps, in a manual not intended for the learned, it will 
be most useful, as it is certainly most simple, and, I 
think, practical, to speak of " two forms of distemper," 
since the chest and lung diseases of the dog all call for 
one sort of home treatment, and the more ordinary 
diseases of the intestinal tract can with safety be lumped 
together as needing another fairly uniform style of 
treatment. Further than this the non - medical dog 
owner is not wise to venture, since it is quite as necessary 



5 8 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

that a canine patient should have skilled advice as that 
it should be called in for his master that is, if his 
recovery is desired. 

Roughly speaking, then, there are two kinds of dis- 
temper that which affects the nose, throat, and chest, 
and in slight cases may pass as being only a very bad 
cold, and that which affects the intestinal canal, in- 
volving the whole alimentary system. This latter is 
certainly the more troublesome for an amateur to treat, 
and decidedly the more fatal ; but, fortunately, the 
former is the more common. It is very easy to tell 
when a dog is the subject of distemper in the catarrhal 
form, and when in this state he is, I think, much more 
likely to do well if carefully nursed at home ; but in 
the typhoid form it requires skilled nursing to do the 
case justice, and the physical conditions are such that 
if it is a big " if " the right sort of vet can be found, 
the dog has a better chance with him. 

The symptoms of catarrhal distemper are shivering, 
feverishness temperature generally not very high at 
first, but a degree or two over the normal profuse 
discharge from the eyes and nose, and, in short, all 
those of a bad, feverish cold ; and the treatment may 
be exactly that which we should give a child under the 
same circumstances. The great thing, in both forms, 
is to keep up the strength from the very beginning ; 
this is far more important than giving medicine of 
any kind, and if the patient will not eat, he should 
be given food forcibly. I do not by this mean that 
a large quantity of food should be forced upon the 
unwilling animal ; he should have about two teaspoon- 
fuls of some invalid nourishment every two hours, and 
this should be as varied as possible, and kept as sweet 
and dainty as if for a human patient. A raw egg 
beaten up with the smallest possible quantity of milk ; 
a little good beef-tea, made by cutting lean, raw beef 
into small cubes, and slowly drawing all the goodness 
out of it in an earthenware jar, tightly covered, in the 
oven, only two tablespoonfuls of water to the pound of 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 59 

meat being added ; veal broth similarly made ; arrow- 
root, with a few drops of the juice of raw meat added ; 
strong chicken tea, with a little rice boiled in it and 
strained out all these may be rung upon for change. 
Some dogs will eat solid food all through the disease, 
and this simplifies matters immensely. Where, there 
is no appetite, liquids or semi-liquids must be given. 
Concentrated foods and other invalid preparations, 
though useful on occasion, very soon pall and sicken 
the patient, and while it saves trouble to use things 
like this, they have not the same effect in keeping 
up the strength as good, honest home-cookery. The 
necessity for thus dieting and feeding is the same in 
either form of distemper, and the dog must not be 
left all night without attention, but fed at intervals 
then also. Warmth and evenness of temperature come 
next in importance. A little flannel jacket or crossover, 
made of thick, new flannel, is as good as poultices, and 
should be put, and kept, on well into convalescence, 
when, of course, it must not be left off too suddenly. 
I do not say anything about medicine, actual poulticing, 
etc., because a distemper patient, in view of the com- 
plications which are always apt to arise in this disease, 
should be nursed under skilled veterinary direction. 
I only insist on the need for feeding up and warmth. 

Distemper patients cannot go out of doors, in cold 
weather, unless there is to be no regard to the great 
risk they run in such a change of temperature ; there- 
fore, as soon as the disease declares itself, it is well to 
settle the patient somewhere where a tray of earth can 
be provided, absolute quiet maintained, and an even 
warmth kept up, and here let the disease run its course. 

Relapses from distemper are even more serious than 
the first attack, and they are very apt to occur where 
the patient is allowed to go out, or move about too 
soon or too much. Stimulants brandy and port wine 
are very useful where the weakness is great, and 
champagne will often be kept down where water or 
broth would be rejected. 



60 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

The " new " disease, commonly called the Stuttgart 
disease, which has created so much excitement among 
dog owners during the last year or two, and is of the 
nature of gastritis, or inflammation of the lining mem- 
brane of the stomach, spreading upwards and down- 
wards, calls in some ways for quite a different treatment 
to that of the typhoid form of distemper. They are 
alike in this : that a teaspoonful or so of iced champagne 
or iced soda and milk, will sometimes be retained where 
nothing else will, but in gastric catarrh, or gastritis, 
the patient must not be allowed to drink water, or to 
make the slightest exertion. 

It may, perhaps, be as well to state what, I suppose, 
is not yet known to all dog owners namely, the fact 
that it is by no means a necessity for a toy, or any 
other dog for that matter, to have distemper. Like 
scarlet fever in the human subject, distemper may occur 
in a dog's life, or may not. The child takes scarlet fever 
if it has been in the way of infection, and the dog dis- 
temper if the contagion has been conveyed to it either 
by some person who has been near an affected dog, by 
that dog itself, or by some article on which infected dis- 
charges of any kind have been deposited. 

The one quarrel we all have with shows is that they 
certainly offer opportunities of spreading distemper to 
people who do not consider its existence in their kennels 
a sufficient reason for withholding entries, and carry the 
contagion with them, although the dogs they exhibit may 
be in themselves unaffected. An old-fashioned piece of 
advice in distemper, and one always given, was that at 
the outset of the disease a dose of castor oil, or some other 
aperient, should be administered. I have no hesitation 
at all in saying that whereas castor oil to the dog 
a violent irritant purgative has carried off many and 
many a puppy and delicate adult that, if not so weakened 
just when all the reserve forces of strength were most 
needed, might have pulled through, this practice is a 
most mistaken one, to say the least of it. If there is 
any probability of there being any collection in the 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 61 

intestine which needs clearing away, pure olive oil will 
do all, and more than castor oil, and will neither cause 
the pain at the time nor the subsequent constipation, 
which will be the inevitable results, if there are no 
worse ones, of the stronger, and, I must call it, vile, drug. 
Another fallacy is the supposed desirability of con- 
stantly washing the eyes and nose with warm water. 
This is often not properly dried off, and chill results, 
while all the fuss and worry is quite needless and does 
no good. A little bit of old linen rag may be torn up 
and the fragments used to clean off the discharges 
and at once burnt. Once, or even twice, a day a sponge 
damped with boracic lotion can be used, but very 
sparingly. 

The watchword in distemper, as I said before, is 
nursing good nursing alone will pull most dogs through 
and I deliberately refrain from giving any prescrip- 
tions, because, as each case varies according to circum- 
stances and the patient's constitution, each should be 
prescribed for on its merits. 

For far too long we have gone on in a rough-and- 
ready rule-of-thumb method of dosing dogs all in the 
same way, without regard to idiosyncrasy, which all 
the time has been as marked in them as in human 
kind and the sooner we change all this and study each 
dog after its kind, the better for them and for us. 

Skin Troubles. The most annoying thing about 
the skin complaints which occasionally beset toy dogs 
is the difficulty to the amateur >f diagnosing them 
correctly. Even veterinary surgeons are sometimes 
hazy in this respect, and it is therefore well when a 
skin trouble refuses to yield to simple remedies, incap- 
able of doing harm, to consult a man really experienced 
in toys, and not some uninterested, and even rather 
contemptuous, practitioner, who may even commit such 
a cruel barbarity as I have heard of, in the advising 
of sheep dip ! 

The most common form of skin disease in adult 



62 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

dogs is eczema, which for purposes of rough, or popular, 
classification, may be divided into two forms, wet and 
dry. Weeping eczema is decidedly uncommon, but is 
the only form of skin disease offering open sores and 
raw surfaces likely to affect comparatively well-cared- 
for toy dogs. In this, as in the dry, severer forms of 
eczema, it is useless to attempt cure by mere outward 
applications. The mischief is in the blood, and until 
the blood is put right the external symptoms will 
continue, unless, indeed, strong mercurial lotion or 
ointment be used, which may fatally drive the disease 
in, and by clearing up the skin and so depriving the 
body of the safety-valve of outward lesions,eventually 
kill the animal. Such a proceeding is occasionally 
resorted to by unscrupulous persons whose only desire 
is to sell their mangy or eczematous dogs, for the im- 
mediate effect of dressing with mercurial ointment 
is often almost miraculously good to the eye. There- 
fore, my advice to the amateur is, under no circum- 
stances to purchase a dog which is known to have 
suffered from any severe form of skin disease. Even 
if the complaint has not been doctored in the way 
described, and has been cured by honest methods, it 
may always break out again, for it is in the constitu- 
tion. I must, of course, except cases in which con- 
tagious eczema has been given to the victim by some 
other dog, but in dealing with strangers, shops, or pro- 
fessional dealers, it is wisest to avoid a purchase where 
skin disease has existed. . 

Some breeds are very much more subject to skin 
trouble than others, and all long-haired dogs are apt to 
suffer from simple eczema and erythema, the latter 
especially when young ; while distemper of a severe 
kind is often followed by a disease of the skin, closely 
resembling mange, for which it is often unfortunately 
mistaken. It should be simply treated with a mild 
antiseptic ointment, while the constitutional weakness 
is the focus for attention. 

Puppies often teeth with a rash, called puppy-pox, 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 63 

which shows as general redness of the skin, generally 
on the bare parts of the body, under the forelegs, etc., 
and here and there groups of pustules, each of which 
contains a drop of thin pus. This is a complaint allied 
to chicken-pox in children, and by no means dangerous 
in fact, a puppy which teethes with such a rash has 
generally the making of a strong and healthy dog. At 
the same time, whenever either this trouble, or bare 
patches about the legs and face, are seen on puppies, 
the teeth should be looked to, for it is probable they 
are in some way irritating the system. 

The existence of too many worms in puppies generally 
accompanies skin trouble in the form of bare patches, 
which may be well rubbed daily with a sponge dipped 
in an extremely simple, safe, and useful lotion, which 
I can recommend to be given a trial in all forms of 
skin disease, as in no case can it do harm, while in many 
cases it will effect a cure so far as any outward appli- 
cation is capable of doing. It is known as the Kanofelin 
lotion, a preparation of phenyl, which is not irritating, 
or in any way poisonous or disagreeable to the nose, 
but has a taste which prevents dogs from licking it 
oft ; should they do so, however, it will not harm them. 
The lotion, after being applied and well rubbed in with 
the sponge to smooth, bare places, where the skin is 
not broken, should be wiped off with a towel or hand- 
kerchief, as it is not wise to leave the dog wet. It 
should be used twice a day, and where the skin is 
broken, very gently with a soft sponge, and, of course, 
no rubbing in. 

Some dry and scaly skin eruptions, of which pityriasis 
is the most common, need different treatment. Where- 
ever bare places appearing on the toy dog look scurfy, 
and scales fall off, do not use any lotion, nor rub, but 
lightly dab on a little zinc ointment if the dog is not 
given to licking the parts ; if he is, use a plain, rather 
thin, sulphur ointment : Sublimated sulphur, i oz. ; 
vaseline, 4 ozs. This latter may also be used in cases 
where the Kanofelin lotion is useful, and then be well 



64 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

rubbed in ; but the rule is no rubbing when scales or 
scurf are present. The Kanofelin ointment is harmless 
and useful in all cases. Applications can be much varied 
to suit cases, and where violent irritation is present, 
it is sometimes necessary to use a more complex pre- 
paration than those mentioned. The poisonous nature 
of some of the ingredients, included in the most effi- 
cacious of them, however, makes it very undesirable 
to use them otherwise than under the advice of a skilled 
surgeon. The following cream is a most useful appli- 
cation for use in cases where the skin is not broken, 
where great irritation and redness of the skin are present, 
and where the affected parts either cannot be reached 
by the patient, or the latter can be muzzled during 
treatment. It is, however, poisonous, on account of 
the carbolic acid and lead it contains : Liquor plumbi 
diacet., 4 drs. ; liquor carbonis detergens, 40 mns. ; 
boracic acid powder, i oz. ; new milk, to 4 ozs. Shake 
well before use, and apply frequently with a bit of sponge. 
Label : Poison. 

In the treatment of medicated baths, usually com- 
posed of that most evil-smelling compound liver of 
sulphur and water in professional language, " a sul- 
phuretted potash solution " I own I have little or no 
faith. A plain sulphur ointment is twice as efficacious, 
far easier to apply, and has no disagreeable smell ; 
while, if well rubbed into the skin, as it and other skin 
ointments should be, and not left in the hair, it is not 
in any way unpleasant. 

In all cases where skin trouble is accompanied by 
a strong and most unpleasant smell, mange (either 
follicular, or, more commonly, sarcoptic), may be sus- 
pected. The latter is easier to cure than many forms of 
eczema, but it is absolutely needful to keep the patient 
smothered in a dressing of sweet oil and sulphur, than 
which there is nothing better, for several days, then to 
wash and dress again ; and such cases are not suitable 
for home treatment, although no veterinary surgeon 
should be permitted to apply strong dressings like 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 65 

paraffin, mercurial ointment, or -tar (otherwise creosote) 
to delicate toys. Mercurial dressings, in all cases, are 
rank poison, the absorption of the drug into the system 
having fatal effects for the future. 

Follicular mange, in which the insect causing the 
trouble burrows deep, is a horrible disease, about the 
worst a dog can have, and here skilled veterinary assist- 
ance cannot be dispensed with. But it is safe for the 
amateur, in all cases of commencing skin trouble, where 
there is no smell and the bare patches do not spread 
rapidly, to use the phenyl lotion or sulphur or Kanofelin 
ointment, according to the state of the skin, and to begin 
the more important internal treatment by a complete 
change of diet. 

A very dry or confined diet, certain meals, as oatmeal 
or Indian corn meals, either in biscuits or otherwise ; 
too little food ; more rarely too much ; absence of meat 
from the dietary, or too little of it ; as before, but very 
rarely too much these are all incentives to skin trouble, 
while heredity has much to say to a tendency thereto. 

A dog which has not been having much meat, but 
has been chiefly fed on dog biscuit, may, on the appear- 
ance of skin irritation, be given plenty of good, under- 
done meat roast mutton, sheep's head, and bullock's 
heart, all being very suitable. In no case of skin disease 
should either oatmeal or Indian corn be given ; and sea 
air should be avoided, as it is always aggravating to 
skin troubles. Tripe is nourishing and very digestible, 
and fresh fish suits most of the invalids very well. 
Together with the entire change of diet the hours for 
meals need not, of course, be altered a course of iron 
and cod liver oil is always well worth trying. Per- 
sonally, I pin my faith to the following method, which 
I have known most successful in difficult cases, and 
which, as I can say of the other remedies advised in 
this little book, can do no harm. Powerful drugs are 
often a source of danger in inexperienced hands, and a 
good many of the medicines one sees advised are, so 
to speak, extremely speculative, 

5 



66 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

Get, then, a bottle of cod liver oil and malt, and 
i oz. or more, if you please of saccharated car- 
bonate of iron. In your pet's dinner mix, at first, 
well covered over with cut-up meat of extra dainti- 
ness, a scant half-teaspoonful of the solution with a 
dust of the iron, which is a sweet powder. Nearly 
all dogs will take this without any trouble, and soon 
get very fond of the oil, even if they object to it at 
first ; but they must not see the dose introduced into 
the meal. Let them think it an accident, or at any 
rate, in the natural way of things, and they are far 
less likely to object than if they see you making a 
parade of mixing and covering. The dose, given twice 
a day, in meat dinner and supper, should be gradually 
increased, until a dog of 6 Ibs. is taking a full teaspoonful 
of the solution twice a day, with 3 grs. of iron to each 
dose ; and patience will be needed, for, to do any good, 
this dosing must go on for at least a month. It may 
then be left off gradually, and resumed again if neces- 
sary. In obstinate cases of skin disease, arsenic is a 
most valuable remedy, and may with most effect be 
combined with the system of cod liver oil, malt extract, 
and saccharated carbonate of iron just described. 
Fowler's solution, which is generally recommended, 
should not be used, because it contains oil of lavender, 
which is very offensive to dogs, and sickens them ; the 
British Pharmacopoeia solution should be the one used. 
Of this the dose is from one drop twice a day, to be 
gradually increased up to four drops twice a day for 
toys ; the best way is to get the B.P. solution from 
your chemist, mixed with such a quantity of distilled 
water as that there are four drops in each teaspoonful. 
This may be given with iron and without the cod liver 
oil, or with cod liver oil without the iron, or alone, 
in food it is tasteless but is far better given in com- 
bination with the two. Mr. Appleby, Argyle Street, 
Bath, puts up the iron and arsenic together in a very 
easily used form, known as the " Kanofelin Blood 
Mixture," This, my own formula, I generally advise 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 67 

to my readers whose dogs do not or cannot take cod 
liver oil ; he also, inter alia, puts up the worm capsules 
to my prescription as mentioned for the use of toy dog 
owners ; and it is sometimes an advantage to get your 
medicines ready made. 

Arsenic is what is known as a cumulative drug ; it 
produces no special effect until a good deal is stored up 
in the system. When enough has been given, the said 
system revolts, and now, when the dog's eyes begin to 
look watery, and the mucous membrane lining the 
mouth may be a little red, you have given enough, and 
must cease ; for a time only if the disease is not subdued 
in permanence if it be. One last word arsenic is the 
dernier ressort, and should not be used until other means 
have failed, whereas some people fly to it when a much 
simpler treatment would have done all that was necessary. 

Another skin complaint which, is much more com- 
mon than is generally supposed, is ringworm. I have 
often seen this diagnosed as eczema, whereas it really 
is very easy to tell its true nature, as it has very marked 
characteristics. 

It begins with tiny, round, bare spots, about as large 
as the head of a pin, which usually escape notice at 
first, but gradually spread round the edges, not always 
in a circular form, but sometimes as irregular patches, 
the skin appearing greyish, but not unhealthy. On 
looking closely it will be seen that the hairs have been 
broken off short, close to the skin, but are clearly visible, 
which is the chief feature of the disease and the infallible 
sign. Ringworm may be caught at any time, most 
frequently from a visit to some infested stable, but 
occasionally from chance contagion in the streets. 
Horses are subject to the same form of the complaint, 
and dogs generally catch it from them ; it is sporadic, 
and the spores may, of course, fall about anywhere 
from an infected horse or another dog. It is extremely 
capricious in its inception ; dogs in the same house 
may or may not catch it from one another, and some- 
times a whole kennel will be infected, with the exception 



68 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

of one or two dogs apparently immune. There is, 
however, no excuse for allowing it to spread, as it is 
easy to cure. Some of the strongest tincture of iodine 
available should be well soaked into the spot, and 
round the edges thereof, using a little ball of cotton 
wool tied on to the end of a tiny stick, or an aural sponge, 
and rubbing the iodine somewhat in with this. Two 
applications will generally kill the spores the disease 
is a parasitic fungus and should be made at an interval 
of a couple of days. For some time fresh spots are 
likely to appear, and should be touched up at once. 
The muzzle, legs, and chest are generally most affected. 
If left quite alone the complaint would disfigure the 
dog terribly, but would, after a time, die out of its 
own accord. I have not found that human subjects 
were infected with this disease from the dog. A little 
iodide of potassium ointment may be put on the patches 
once or twice, to hasten the complete cure, or they 
may be washed with the phenyl lotion, in which the 
proportion is i in 40. The hairs are weakened, and 
take some little time to grow properly again, but the 
disease is by no means a serious one, and it is not neces- 
sary to use any such stronger and dangerous remedies 
as carbolic acid, as sometimes suggested. 

Erythema, a general redness and rash, most often 
seen over the inside of the thighs, and sometimes all over 
a dog's least hairy parts, is about the only skin disease 
if we except the curious and rare condition, " hide- 
bound " from which dogs very occasionally suffer, 
that, in a common way, arises from over-feeding. It is 
best treated by change of diet, small nourishing meat 
meals, and the avoidance of any heating, farinaceous 
substances, milk, or greasy food of any kind. A small 
dose of sulphate of magnesia twice a week in food as 
much as will lie, not heaped, on sixpence for a 6-lb. dog 
is often all the medicine needful. Want of exercise is 
a frequent producer of skin disease. Dogs not sufficiently 
exercised, or kept much shut up in hot rooms, have 
inactive livers, whence all kinds of evils. 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 69 

I have never seen but one case of " hide-bound " in 
a house-dog, and that not in a toy. The skin was 
thickened and hard. Although the complaint is an in- 
teresting one from its rarity, that same fortunate quality 
renders it unnecessary for me to enter into the question 
a veterinary surgeon must undertake such a case. 

The Ears. The ears in toy dogs are often the seat 
of a slight congestion which has no particular cause, 
but is more common in some individuals than others, 
and generally occurs at intervals in those subjects 
which have once had it. If taken early, the cure of 
an attack is very simple ; but if neglected, the congested 
state may increase and culminate in inflammation of 
the middle ear, otitis, and the bugbear " canker," of 
which we hear so much, and which is really extremely 
rare. There are many stages of the trouble, from- the 
slightly hot and red external ear, which causes the dog 
to put two claws in the passage and try to scratch it, 
and sometimes succeed in making a sore place thereby, 
through the phases of rubbing the side of the head on 
the carpet or ground, groaning and shaking the head 
violently, and other manifestations of pain, up to the 
existence of real canker, when there is much soreness 
and redness externally, with swelling of the meatus, or 
passage, a profuse and very dark brown discharge, and 
a very disagreeable odour. 

There is always a slight characteristic smell about a 
" bad ear," which any experienced person can recognise 
in an instant, often before any other sign of trouble is 
seen. Some dogs most, in fact need watching in 
this respect. The moment the toy is seen to be a little 
one-sided as to head, or evinces any disposition to scratch 
his ear, a small lump of boric ointment should be put in 
the meatus, pushed in with the little finger, and worked 
about until it melts down into the passage and convolu- 
tions. Next day the ear may be cleaned out with the 
tip of the little finger covered with a very soft hand- 
kerchief, and the ointment again used, and this, in slight 



7 o A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

cases, will effect a cure. Never attempt to put any hard 
instrument, or, indeed, any instrument at all, other than 
the soft suppleness of a feeling finger, into a dog's ear. 

If the trouble has gone on a good while, and there 
is much brown discharge, it will be necessary to use a 
lotion. First of all use the ointment, as described, and 
clear away as much of the softened discharge as possible 
by this means, being, of course, exceedingly gentle in 
your manipulation, for these, at best, are very tender 
parts. Then take the following lotion : Warm water, 
\ pt. ; Goulard's extract of lead, i tablespoonful ; 
powdered boracic acid, J dr. The boracic powder to 
be added to the water first, and the Goulard after, and 
the whole on no account to be used otherwise than 
nicely warm, or it will cause pain. The bottle can, of 
course, be filled at once, and a little of the contents 
warmed for use as needed. Lay the patient down 
on the sound side, with the bad ear uppermost, and 
get someone to hold him firmly. Then gently pour 
about half to one teaspoonful of the warm lotion into 
the ear, and work it about from outside. Keep him 
lying still for three or five minutes, then let him go, 
and fly ! For he will shake the superfluous lotion all 
over you if you are not cautious. A great deal of 
remonstrant ploughing about generally follows, but the 
application does not really cause any pain, and will 
soon cure if persevered with twice a day for a week 
or so. Such frightful and almost, if not quite, incur- 
able cases as one sometimes meets with in sporting 
dogs, where the ears have become thoroughly diseased 
from, in the first place, getting wet and dirty, and being 
subsequently neglected, are, I rejoice to say, unknown 
among well-cared-for toys. 

People are sometimes alarmed because their puppies' 
ears do not stand erect when they should, or are pointing 
ing all directions but the right when they should drop. 
This is a common thing enough during teething, and 
will generally come quite right later on. If it does 
not, no active remedy by operation is permissible 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 71 

if the dog is to be shown, but a good deal can be done 
by oiling the ears and manipulating them constantly 
in the desired direction by massage, while, in the case 
of youngish puppies, two or three thicknesses of horses' 
leg bandage plaster, cut to fit the inside and point of 
the ear, will either, if stuck in by warming it, help 
the ear to drop or to stand up, as is desired. This is 
a legitimate "fake," I may remark. But, of course, 
the process must not be used with any idea of decep- 
tion, though it is allowable to aid Nature in the way she 
should go. 

The Eyes. The eye of the dog is an even more 
delicate structure than the ear, and only skilled surgical 
aid should approach it in any but the simplest ailments. 
Of these are the simple catarrhal ophthalmia, the 
symptoms of which are redness of the lining membrane 
of the lids, and a greenish discharge, turning brown 
and dry later, which comes from cold and weakness 
of constitution. The victim of this must be kept in 
an even temperature, be not allowed to lie by the fire, 
or look into it, or to go out of doors in wind, hot sun- 
shine, or cold, and be well fed with good nourishing 
meat and light, digestible food. The discharge should 
be wiped away from the eyes at morning and evening 
with a bit of sponge dipped in a warm boracic lotion 
which any chemist will supply of the proper strength ; 
and immediately afterwards a little bit of yellow oxide 
of mercury ointment, about as large as a small split 
pea, should be gently introduced under the lid of the 
affected eye with a camel's hair brush. Do not, on 
any account, accept " golden ointment," if the chemist 
happens to offer you this old-fashioned remedy (I be- 
lieve) for styes ! It is made of the red oxide of mercury, 
and is a very great deal stronger than the yellow oxide 
of mercury ointment, which, by the way, should be 
made in the strength of 2 grs. to the ounce. This 
latter ointment may also be used where, after distemper, 
a bluish film lingers in the eye. Amaurosis is not 



72 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

uncommon in the dog. The eyes look perfectly right, 
but the dog is blind. This may be an hereditary 
condition, but sometimes comes in as a result of weak- 
ness pure and simple. Iron tonics, cod liver oil, nux 
vomica, etc , may be given, and sometimes prove 
effectual. Good living is essential. These cases are 
occasionally cured rather suddenly, but as a rule are 
incurable. 

Simple cold in the eyes or more often, only in one 
is a very ordinary ailment, but distressing both to 
sufferer and owner. The affected eye waters more or 
less profusely, and is kept partly closed. Within, there 
is the same appearance as in catarrhal ophthalmia, but 
in a less degree, and there may be fever and constitu- 
tional disturbance, in which case the patient must be 
treated for a coryza, or " common cold." A boracic 
and poppy-head lotion is the quickest cure for cold 
in the eyes, and is also useful in the ophthalmic con- 
dition. It soothes the pain greatly, and is best applied 
by means of a small all-indiarubber ball syringe. On 
no account must a syringe with a bone or glass or 
vulcanite point be used : the indiarubber nozzle is soft, 
and from it one or two drops can easily be inserted 
between the eyelids. The amount of resistance the 
patient makes will be proportionate to the severity of 
the inflammation, and as this lessens he will endure 
the operation with serenity. To make the lotion at home, 
buy a poppy-head, price about a halfpenny, from any 
chemist, and boil it for an hour or longer in half a pint 
of water, adding to this as it evaporates. When the 
water is sherry-coloured, dissolve 10 grs. of boracic acid 
powder in each fluid ounce, allow to cool, and use as 
frequently as convenient once every hour, while the 
congestion of the lining membrane of the eyelids is 
active. 

Sore Feet. Eczema, or little boils between the 
toes and round the dew-claw on the front legs, s a 
trouble which besets some dogs. Constitutional treat- 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 73 

nient, as laid down for eczema, is needful, and as the 
dog will invariably worry the sores incessantly by 
licking, they should be dusted with zinc or ichthyol 
powder, and then bandaged or socked. If a dog is 
constantly licking its dew-claw, look at it to make sure 
it is not growing in. In this case it needs to be cut 
rather short, preferably by a veterinary surgeon, and 
the sore dressed. Dew-claws on the hind legs should 
always be removed by a veterinary surgeon in puppy- 
hood. 

Colds and Coughs. Colds, or coryza, beset dogs a? 
they do humans, but in lesser degree. A chest cold 
needs a flannel cross-over, sometimes a hot linseed 
poultice (in treating dogs it is much better to use, if 
possible, some dry poultice which will not leave the 
dog sopping after it is removed), or a mustard - leal. 
Rubbing with white vaseline oil and ten drops of tur- 
pentine to each ounce, if vigorously done, is as good 
for colds as for rheumatism. Everyone knows what a 
cold is, and the toy dog's cold should be treated like 
one's own. The clinical thermometer should be used, 
and if the temperature exceeds 100, a pill of 5 grs. 
of nitrate of potash should be given every four hours 
until it is normal again, or, if it cannot be got down 
thus, give J gr. of sulphate of quinine and i gr. of 
phenacetin, using the tabloids, and dividing them as 
desired. The strength must be well kept up. Coughs 
the dog's hollow, deep-drawn brand are a sore trial 
to the hearer. They sound terrible, but are seldom 
of much moment. If from cold, put a little vaseline 
or glycerine on the nose three or four times a, day. It 
will be licked off, and give relief, while some dogs will 
eat glycerine lozenges if not flavoured with lemon. 
Vaseline, again, is an excellent thing for bronchial 
wheezing, such as pugs are especially subject to, and 
will always be taken if put on the nose. Cream 
also is soothing, and where is the dog that does not 
like it 1 



74 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

Chest Diseases. The worst-sounding coughs are 
often the least important, and may pass off in a few 
days without treatment, but a bronchial rattling in the 
throat calls for care. Bronchitis in toy dogs must be 
treated exactly as in children, and, needless to say, the 
dog must not go out until the acute stage is passed. 
Most clean dogs will go to a box of earth in a cellar. 
A bronchitis kettle must be kept going in the room, 
and the patient will need an invalidish diet and much 
petting and amusement to carry him through the dull 
hours of discomfort. Dogs have congestion of the 
lungs, pleurisy, pneumonia, just as people do, and need 
the same careful nursing. Medicine in such cases is 
usually unnecessary, because it worries the patient and 
can do little good. A mild fever mixture may be pre- 
scribed by the vet, who should always be called in the 
moment the breathing goes wrong. Dulness, lassitude, 
shivering, and a high temperature the clinical ther- 
mometer is of all things needed here with troubled 
breathing, are symptoms of the highest importance, 
and skilled aid should be immediately called to them, 
The amateur cannot diagnose these lung and chest 
troubles. 

Stomach Coughs. Very dreadful coughs are some- 
times heard proceeding entirely from the stomach. For 
these a little course of indigestion treatment often does 
wonders. Or, again, coughing may be caused by a 
fish-bone or something similar in the throat, though 
this is the rarest of all causes in the dog, owing to his 
possessing a most tremendous gullet, quite out of pro- 
portion to his size. 

Shivering. Shivering is a bad trick some dogs ac- 
quire, and others have by nature. It generally, if 
unaccompanied by a high temperature, means nothing 
whatever, unless it be nerves. But, short of the Weir 
Mitchell treatment, I imagine nothing benefits these 
latter more than a mild scolding, with admonitions " not 
to be so silly." 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 75 

Hysteria. There are, most certainly, hysterical dogs, 
and their temperament is that of the habitual shiverer, 
though very thin-skinned toys sometimes really shiver 
from cold. A hysterical dog will bark itself quite out 
of breath at the least disturbance, and shriek exactly 
like its prototype human. Nature cannot be changed, 
but a tonic sometimes does good. Excitability and ner- 
vousness are characteristic of . some breeds. Poms are, 
perhaps, the most excitable of small dogs, and pugs 
certainly the least so. 

Obesity. Extreme fatness may be a disease in the 
dog as in the human being, and in this case it is cruel 
to accuse the poor creature of systematic over-eating, 
as it is everyone's impulse to do. The bromides and 
iodides are useful, but cannot be prescribed haphazard. 
Thyroid gland tabloids may also be tried, beginning 
with one once a day, and gradually creeping up to three 
a day, according to the dog's size. Their effect on the 
digestion is not always happy, so that the dog must 
be watched to assure the owner of its toleration of 
them. 

Poison. Not an ailment, but a subject which needs 
a few words, is the taking of poison by toy dogs. Un- 
luckily, there is always risk in a town, not only of the 
wilful poisoner, who apparently exists, but of the in- 
gestion of poisoned meat or bread and butter put for 
rats or beetles, and afterwards thrown out. In ninety- 
nine cases out of a hundred a poisoned dog has had 
strychnine, this being the favourite drug of al] those 
who employ poison at all. Arsenic is too slow, and 
of other poisons, thank Providence ! the vulgar have 
mostly no knowledge. The symptoms of strychnine 
poisoning are, firstly, excitement the patient runs 
about, and barks with a peculiar strident shriek. Ac- 
cording to the quantity of the poison taken and the 
quantity of food in the stomach at the time, this stage 
occupies a longer or shorter period. Taken shortly 
after a good meal, the poison seems less rapid in action 



76 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

than when the stomach is empty. Presently come 
convulsions, and constant shrieking ; then the limbs 
stick out and are perfectly stiff and rigid. Even at 
this stage the dog can often be saved if means are at 
hand. Never be without a bottle of syrup of chloral 
in the house ; it will keep indefinitely. First make the 
dog sick. Use sulphate of zinc in water, or weak 
mustard and warm water, and give plenty of this latter. 
The best way is by putting it in a phial, and running 
it down the throat by way of a pouch of lower lip 
diawn out from the teeth at the angle of the mouth. 
As soon as the patient has been sick, give a teaspoonful 
of the syrup of chloral in water. This is the antidote 
to strychnine. If you cannot wait to make the patient 
sick, give the chloral at once but give it : and the dose 
may be repeated every two hours until the convulsions 
cease. For a tiny pup or dog under 5 Ibs. the dose may 
be halved. Recovery from strychnine is very rapid, and 
it leaves, as a rule, no ill effects, though there is a wide- 
spread belief, and a mistaken one, that it subsequently 
affects the kidneys. 

All the other kinds of poison dogs are likely to get 
or be given work as irritants, and these need veterinary 
diagnosis. Salt, I may here remark, is so violent and 
irritating a purgative to the dog that it is next door to 
a poison, and the effects of castor oil in his intestine 
are not so very far behind. Constant drugging is a 
thing as much to be avoided in dogs as in their owners, 
and I cannot too strongly deprecate the foolish practice 
foolish or worse of giving doses of castor oil after 
shows, or as so - called prophylactics preventives of 
illness. If a dog has been much confined at a show, 
and is likely to be irregular in consequence, a little pure 
olive oil with his dinner (not the nut oil often sold by 
grocers as olive oil) will do no harm, although a dinner 
of oatmeal gruel or boiled sheep's liver would be much 
more sensible and act better ; if he seems well and 
lively, leave him alone. Some people actually go the 
length of dosing their puppies with castor oil at in- 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 77 

tervals, for no reason that I can ascertain beyond a va.gue 
idea that it " clears the system." So it does of 
strength and the healthy mucoid secretion of the in- 
testine, without which natural functions cannot be 
properly performed. Syrup of buck-thorn, or cascara 
sagrada, is another medicine that should never be given 
to small dogs : it is far too irritating and severe. When 
we have such excellent aperients as olive oil, magnesia, 
and rhubarb among drugs, and boiled sheep's liver 
among meats, we want no semi-poisonous irritant 
and violent drugs like castor oil, which, in the end, 
produce the very condition they were supposed to 
cure, and by pulling down the system, open the door 
to illness. 

Fits. Of these, epileptic fits are the most dangerous 
and by far the least common. A dog suffering from 
epilepsy which is thoroughly established, is practically 
incurable, in the present state of canine medical science. 
Later, perhaps, the Rontgen rays may be beneficially 
applied to this disease in dogs, as in human beings. 
In a popular manual it is scarcely necessary to go 
further into the subject than to say that epilepsy need 
not be suspected unless the convulsive attacks are more 
or less recurrent, and so frequent as to exhaust the 
animal. Not until we have tried such treatment as an 
amateur can safely give, which is quite enough to cure 
ordinary teething or suckling fits due merely to some 
reflex irritation affecting the brain, and found it fail, 
need we fear epilepsy ; and when we do fear it with 
any reason, skilled advice and diagnosis is absolutely 
needful, since the case must be watched and treated 
on its merits. 

Suckling fits are exceedingly common among small, 
highly-organised, and sensitive bitches. They generally 
begin about the end of the second week of nursing 
puppies, and do not seem to be in any way caused by 
overstrain ; that is, a small female suckling five puppies 
is not more likely to suffer from these fits than one only 



78 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

bringing up a brace. Their exact cause is difficult 
to determine, since very healthy, well-fed animals may 
have them in common with those that are weak and 
miserable from under-feeding (which in this case is 
synonymous with feeding on a non-meat diet) or kennel 
life. 

Whatever the cause, the symptoms are always easy 
to recognise. The bitch first loses interest in her Jitter, 
though her milk-supply is seldom, if ever, lessened. 
She twitches, and her eyes look dull and filmy, or glassy 
and staring. She wanders restlessly about, and some- 
times pants in the same way as she did when expecting 
her confinement. Now is the time to intervene, and 
give one teaspoonful of syrup of chloral with an equal 
quantity of water. If this is not done, the attack will 
proceed to staggering, shrieking, and more or less violent 
convulsions. The administration of the chloral gener- 
ally causes the symptoms to subside gradually ; but 
should the patient be no better in two hours, repeat the 
dose, and if giving bromide of potassium in 5-gr. doses 
twice or three times a day, immediately after food, 
does not keep her right, she must go on taking the 
chloral. 

Neither chloral nor bromide affects the milk ; if any 
of it passes therein, the quantity is so very minute as 
to make no difference to the puppies. It is not at all 
necessary to take the bitch away from her litter ; in 
fact, it is better to let her go on feeding them. Some 
will wish to leave their babies, and these should be taken 
to them and shut in with them, four times a day, and 
during the night. If she is thoroughly well fed, it never 
does the bitch any harm to bring up her family, and it 
would be a very great pity for the puppies to be lost 
when it is not necessary. But it is exceedingly impor- 
tant that she should be kept in a state of hyper-nutrition 
that is, that she should have as much good, under- 
done meat as she can digest. Bromides are lowering, 
and besides this, the state of the nerves demands the 
highest possible feeding. It may be expensive to feed 



AILMENTS AND ILLNESSES 79 

a " fitly " bitch on good beefsteak or roast mutton 
four times a day, giving her a sponge cake the last thing 
at night and a little rnilk, or, what is much better and 
more digestible, a raw new-laid egg or raw fresh cream, 
in the early morning ; but it is, on the whole, a cheap 
way of saving a litter of valuable pups. If there are 
a large number of pups, some may be given to a foster- 
mother ; but as a rule these are difficult to get, and not 
often satisfactory. Bromides should always be given 
immediately after food ; on no account when the stomach 
is empty. Chloral may be given at any time when there 
is a necessity for it. The 5-gr. bromide tabloids obtain- 
able at any chemist's are very useful ; it is un- 
necessary to dissolve them in water for dogs, but, as 
before stated, they must be given with or directly after 
food. 

Teething fits should be treated, as far as medicine 
goes, exactly as suckling fits. Just as a badly-reared, 
non-meat-fed bitch who, by reason of an anaemic habit, 
harbours worms, is a poor subject for the latter trouble, 
so is a puppy that has been brought up on milky slops 
and large, wet messes of oatmeal and bread and milk, 
and thus has a weakened digestion, very likely to suffer 
badly from fits that in a strong young dog would pass 
off with small trouble. There is usually some warning 
of teething fits, as staring eyes, etc. ; but sometimes, 
and especially if a puppy of from six to ten months has 
been much excited, taken out walking on a hot day, 
allowed to play in the sun, or dragged unwillingly on a 
lead, they come on very suddenly. While out in hot 
sun, the dog may suddenly give a shriek and begin 
to run with all his might, taking no notice of calls. 
As a general rule, he has the sense to run home, 
unless some officious person on the way imagines 
him mad and acts as silly people do under such 
circumstances. 

If it is possible to catch the runaway, he should have 
his head covered to keep the light out of his eyes, and be 
taken home as quickly and quietly as possible to be shut 



8o A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

in some cool and perfectly dark place until the fit passes 
off sufficiently to give him a dose of chloral. Afterwards 
he should have a diet of minced, underdone meat, with 
bromide of potassium to follow, for a day or two. A 
plunge into cold water will often stop a fit like this, 
but is too heroic a remedy to be safe unless the cir- 
cumstances are very urgent. Cold sponging to the heo.d 
is good, and quiet and darkness are essential. Some 
times teething fits go on increasing in frequency and 
severity until they merge into epilepsy, and the dog is 
lost. This is occasionally caused by allowing a very 
young, highly nervous, and excitable dog to be with 
others of the opposite sex, when these should be in 
seclusion. 

Fits, very much like mild teething fits, are not un- 
common in run-down dogs suffering from anaemia and the 
likely corollary, worms. These are often very transient, 
and a course of tonic treatment, with rest from excite, 
ment, and good feeding, will banish them. 



CHAPTER IX 

CLUB STANDARDS, DESCRIPTIONS AND POINTS OF 
VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 

Pomeranians. These are now divided into Pomer- 
anians (over 7 Ibs.) and Pomeranians Miniature, and 
the Committee of the Kennel Club have laid down the 
following standard, applying from June i, 1909 : 

THE POMERANIAN. Appearance. The Pomeranian in 
build and appearance should be a compact, short-coupled 
dog, well-knit in frame. His head and face should be 
fox-like, with small erect ears that appear sensible to 
every sound. He should exhibit great intelligence in 
his expression, docility in his disposition, and activity 
and buoyancy in his deportment. In weight and size 
the Pomeranian varies considerably. He must be over 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 81 

7 Ibs., but preferably he should weigh about 10 to 14 Ibs. 
Head. The head should be somewhat foxy in outline or 
wedge-shaped, the skull being flat, large in proportion to 
the muzzle, which should finish rather fine, and be free 
from lippiness. The teeth should be level, and on no 
account undershot. The hair on the head and face 
must be smooth and short-coated. 

THE POMERANIAN MINIATURE Appearance. The 
Pomeranian Miniature in build and appearance should 
be a compact, short-coupled dog. His head and face 
should be like a miniature fox, with small, erect, and 
very mobile ears, pricked and brought well together, 
and in no case lop-eared. He should be full of life, in- 
telligent in expression, and docile in disposition. The 
Pomeranian Miniature should preferably weigh about 
3 to 5 Ibs., but must not exceed 7 Ibs. Dogs above 7 Ibs. 
must be registered as Pomeranians. Dogs below 7 Ibs. 
in weight must, at twelve months of age or after, be 
registered or re-registered as Pomeranians Miniature, 
and being so registered or re-registered, can never com- 
pete in classes for Pomeranians. Head. The head 
should be wedge-shaped and rather foxy in outline, but 
the skull may be rounder than the Pomeranian. 

STANDARD AND SCALE OF POINTS AS LAID DOWN BY 
THE POMERANIAN CLUB. Secretary, G. M. Hicks, Esq., 
Granville House, Blackheath, London, S.E.* Appear- 
ance. The Pomeranian in build and appearance should 
be a compact, short-coupled dog, well-knit in frame. His 
head and face should be fox-like, with small, erect ears, 
that appear sensible to every sound ; he should exhibit 
great intelligence in his expression, docility in his dis- 
position, and activity and buoyancy in his deportments. 
15 points. Head. Somewhat foxy in outline, or 
wedge-shaped, the skull being slightly flat (although in 

* In most cases the names of the Secretaries of the 
various clubs are given, but it must be remembered that 
an annual re-election takes place. 

6 



82 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

the toy varieties the skull may be rather rounder), large 
in proportion to the muzzle, which should finish rather 
fine, and be free from lippiness. The teeth should be 
level, and on no account undershot. The head in its 
profile may exhibit a little " stop," which, however, must 
not be too pronounced, and the hair on head and face 
must be smooth or short-coated. 5 points. Eyes 
Should be medium in size, rather oblique in shape, not 
set too wide apart, bright and dark in colour, showing 
great intelligence and docility of temper. In a white 
dog black rims round the eyes are preferable. 5 points. 
Ears. Should be small, and carried perfectly erect, or 
pricked like those of a fox, and, like the head, should be 
covered with soft, short hair. No plucking or trimming 
is allowable. 5 points. Nose. In black-and-tan, or 
white dogs, the nose should be black ; in other coloured 
Pomeranians it may more often be brown or liver 
coloured ; but in all cases the nose must be self not 
parti-coloured, and never white. 5 points. Neck ani 
Shoulders. The neck, if anything, should be rather 
short, well set in and lion-like, covered with a profuse 
mane and frill of long, straight, glossy hair, sweeping 
from under the jaw, and covering the whole of the front 
part of the shoulders and chest, as well as flowing on 
the top of the shoulders. The shoulders must be toler- 
ably clean and laid well back. 5 points. Body. The 
back must be short, and the body compact, being well 
ribbed up, and the barrel well rounded. The chest 
must be fairly deep, and not too wide. 10 points. 
Legs. The forelegs must be perfectly straight, of medium 
length not such as would be termed either " leggy " 
or " low on leg " but in due proportion in length and 
strength to a well-balanced frame, and the forelegs and 
thighs must be well feathered, the feet small and compact 
in shape. No trimming is allowable. 5 points. Coat. 
Properly speaking, there should be two coats, an under 
and an over coat the one a soft, fluffy under coat, the 
other a long, perfectly straight and glistening coat, 
covering the whole of the body, being very abundant 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 83 

round the neck and forepart of the shoulders and chest, 
where it should form a frill of long, flowing hair, ex- 
tending over the shoulders, as previously described. 
The hindquarters, like those of a collie, should be 
similarly clad with long hair or feathering from the top 
of the rump to the hocks. The hair on the tail must be 
profuse and flowing over the back. 25 points. Tail. 
The tail is a characteristic of the breed, and should 
be well twisted right .up from the root tightly over the 
back, or lying flat on the back, slightly on either side, and 
profusely covered with long hair, spreading out and 
flowing over the back. 10 points. Colour. The fol- 
lowing colours are admissible : White, black, blue, brown, 
black-and-tan, fawn, sable, red, and parti-colours. The 
white must be quite free from lemon or any colour, 
and the blacks, blues, browns, black-and-tan, and reds 
free from white. A few white hairs in any of the self- 
colours shall not absolutely disqualify, but should 
carry great weight against the dog. In parti-coloured 
dogs, the colours should be evenly distributed on the 
body. Whole-coloured dogs with a white foot or feet, 
leg or legs, are decidedly objectionable, and should 
be discouraged, and cannot compete as whole-coloured 
specimens. In mixed classes i.e., where whole-coloured 
and parti-coloured Pomeranians compete together the 
preference should, if in other points they are equal, be 
given to the whole - coloured specimens. 10 points. 
Total 100 points. 

Also catered for by the North of England Pomeranian 
Club. Secretary, J. Tweedale, Valley House, Oversley 
Ford, Wilmslow ; and the Midland Counties Pomeranian 
Club. Hon. Secretary, Mrs. E. Parker, Meadowland, 
Uttoxeter Road, Derby. 

Toy Spaniels (English). Points as denned by the 
Toy Spaniel Club. Hon. Secretary, Miss M. Hall, Chalk 
Hill House, Norwich. Head. Should be well domed, 
and in good specimens is absolutely semi-globular, 
sometimes even extending beyond the half -circle, and 






84 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

absolutely projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to 
meet the upturned nose. Eyes. The eyes are set wide 
apart, with the eyelids square to the line of the face 
not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are 
large, so as to be generally considered black ; their 
enormous pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, 
increasing the description. From their large size, 
there is always a certain amount of weeping shown at 
the inner angles ; this is owing to a defect in the lach- 
rymal duct. Stop. The " stop " or hollow between 
the eyes, is well marked, as in the bulldog, or even more 
so ; some good specimens exhibiting a hollow deep 
enough to bury a small marble. Nose. The nose must 
be short and well turned up between the eyes, and 
without any indication of artificial displacement afforded 
by a deviation to either side. The colour of the end 
should be black, and it should be both deep and wide, 
with open nostrils. Jaw. The lower jaw must be wide 
between its branches, leaving plenty of space for the 
tongue and for the attachment of the lower lips, which 
should completely conceal the teeth. It should also be 
turned up or " finished," so as to allow of its meeting 
the end of the upper jaw, turned up in a similar way, as 
above described. Ears. The ears must be long, so 
as to approach the ground. In an average-sized dog 
they measure 20 ins. from tip to tip, and some reach 
22 ins., or even a trifle more. They should be set low 
on the head, and be heavily feathered. In this respect 
the King Charles is expected to exceed the Blenheim, 
and his ears occasionally extend to 24 ins. Size. The 
most desirable size is from 7 Ibs. to 10 Ibs. Shape. In 
compactness of shape these spaniels almost rival the 
pug, but the length of coat adds greatly to the apparent 
bulk, as the body, when the coat is wetted, looks small 
in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be 
decidedly " cobby," with strong, stout legs, broad back, 
and wide chest. The symmetry of the toy spaniel is 
of importance, but it is seldom that there is any defect 
in this respect. Coat. The coat should be long, silky, 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 85 

soft, and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there 
should be a profuse mane, extending well down in the 
front of the chest. The feather should be well dis- 
played on the ears and feet, where it is so long as to give 
the appearance of their being webbed. It is also carried 
well up the backs of the legs. In the King Charles the 
feather on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding 
that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather 
on the tail (which is cut to the length of about 3^ ins. to 
4 ins.) should be silky, and from 5 ins. to 6 ins. in length, 
constituting a marked " flag " of a square shape, and 
not carried above the level of the back. Colour. The 
colour varies with the breed. The King Charles is a 
lich, glossy black, and deep tan ; tan spots over the 
eyes and on cheeks, and the usual markings on the legs 
are also required. The Ruby Spaniel is a rich chestnut 
red. The presence of a few white hairs intermixed with 
the black on the chest of a King Charles, or intermixed 
with the red on the chest of a Ruby Spaniel, shall carry 
very great weight against a dog, but shall not in itself 
absolutely disqualify ; but a white patch on the chest, 
or white on any other part of a King Charles or Ruby 
Spaniel shall be a disqualification. The Blenheim must 
not on any account be whole-coloured, but should have 
a ground of pure pearly white, with bright, rich chest- 
nut or ruby-red marking evenly distributed in large 
patches. 

The ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze of 
white extending from the nose up to the forehead, and 
ending between the ears in a crescentive curve. In 
the centre of this blaze there should be a clear " spot" 
of red of the size of a sixpence. The tricolour, or 
Charles the First Spaniel, should have the tan of the 
King Charles, with markings like the Blenheim in black 
instead of red on a pearly-white ground. The ears and 
under the tail should also be lined with tan. The tri- 
colour has no spot, that beauty being peculiarly the 
property of the Blenheim. 

The only name by which the tricolour, or black, 



86 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

white, and tan, in future shall be recognised is " Prince 
Charles." 

That in future the all-red toy spaniel be known by 
the name of " Ruby Spaniel." The colour of the nose 
to be black. The points of the " Ruby " to be the 
same as those of the " King Charles," differing only in 
colour. 



SCALE OF POINTS. 
King Charles, Prince Charles, and Ruby Spaniels. 



Symmetry, condition, 

and size 20 

Head 15 

Stop 5 

Muzzle . 10 



Eyes 10 

Ears 15 

Coat and feathering . 15 

Colour . 10 



TOTAL 100 



Blenheim, 



Symmetry, condition, 



and size . i =; 



Head 15 

Stop 5 

Muzzle ib 

Eyes 10 



Ears 10 

Coat and feathering . 15 

Colour and markings 15 

Spot 5 

TOTAL 100 



The Toy Trawler Spaniel. This little dog, having 
had some classes given for it at shows, deserves notice, 
and its standard and scale of points are appended, to- 
gether with some remarks made upon it by a lady who 
has introduced it, and whose kennel of beautiful Toy 
Spaniels of all breeds is well known. Points. Head 
small and light, with very pointed, rather short, nose, 
fine and tapery, with a very slight curve upwards of tip 
of nose. A curve downwards (as in the Borzoi) should 
be an absolute disqualification. The " stop " well 
marked, and the skull rather raised, but flat on the top, 
not dome-shaped. Muzzle just finished, not overshot. 
Long ears, set high, and carried pricked forwards, fram- 
ing the face. Large dark eyes, set wide apart, and 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS $7 

showing the white when turned. They must be set 
perfectly straight, not obliquely, in the head. What- 
ever colour the dog may be, the nose and lips must be 
black. Neck arched. Back broad and short. Tail set 
on a level with the back, and carried gaily, though not 
straight up in the air, or curled over the back like a 
Pomeranian. It should be docked to about 4 or 5 inches, 
and well furnished with long feathering. General 
carriage very smart and gay. Legs reasonably short, 
and perfectly straight, bone light, though strong. Build 
square, sturdy, and compact, but never heavy. The 
action should be smart and prancing, coat very curly, 
but not woolly. It should be rather silky in texture, 
and very glossy. Liberal feathering, waistcoat, and 
breechings. Shape is all important ; colour a secondary 
matter. Best colour a brilliant black, with white waist- 
coat. Next, red with white waistcoat, black and white, 
and red and white. Best size from n to 13 inches at 
shoulder. Any tendency to weediness should be care- 
fully avoided, and the height at shoulders should just 
about equal the length from top of shoulders to root of 
tail. The size should not be judged by weight, but by 
height, as they should weigh heavily for their size. A 
dog about 13 inches high should weigh about 15 Ibs. 
Very small specimens i.e., under 9 inches high are 
only desirable if the type, soundness, compactness, and 
sturdiness are unimpaired. Feet close, firm, and hard. 
They and the lower part of the legs should not be too 
heavily feathered. The expression of face should be 
very alert, and very sweet. The dogs should be very 
bold and courageous. Timidity is a great fault, and 
should tell against them in the ring. They are excellent 
ratters and rabbiters. As to proportion of head, if the 
total length of head be about 6 inches, the ears should 
be set about 4 inches apart. The whole head, seen from 
a bird's-eye point of view, should be triangle, with the 
tip of nose as apex. General appearance should be 
that of an exquisitely pretty little sporting dog, very 
strong, and exceedingly smart and compact. 



A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 



They must not be confounded with Cockers, being a 
totally different type. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 



General appearance, 
including condition 

and smartness .... 12 

Coat 10 

Head and expression 15 

Eyes 6 

Curve and proportion 

of muzzle 6 

Set on of ears 5 

Legs and feet 5 

Colour 5 



Action and soundness 
of limb 10 

Size 5 

Compactness, level- 
ness of back, and 
set of tail 10 

Boldness and alert- 
ness 8 

Soundness of teeth . . 3 

TOTAL 100 



POINTS THAT SHOULD DISQUALIFY. 



A flesh-coloured nose. 
A downward curve of 

muzzle. 
No " stop." 
Hanging lips. 



5. Crooked forelegs. 

6. Light-coloured eyes. 

7. Slanting eyes. 

8. A very long body. 

9. Bad action. 



POINTS THAT ARE VERY UNDESIRABLE. 



1. Timidity. 

2. A straight coat. 

3. Low set ears. 

4. Exaggeratedly short or 

long legs. 

5. Sluggishness'. 

MEASUREMENTS OF A 

Inches. 

Breadth of skull at 
eyes from each out- 
side corner of eyes 

across head 5 

Length of skull 4 

Length of nose 2 

Circumference of skull io 
Circumference of 

muzzle under eyes 6 
Space between eyes . . if 
Space between ears 
when not pricked . 4 



9- 



Exaggeration of any 

kind. 

Drooping tail. 
Showing teeth or 

tongue. 
An " apple " head. 



PERFECT SPECIMEN. 



Inches 

4 
13 



Length of ears (leather) 
Height at shoulders . . 
Length from top of 
shoulders to root of 

tail 13 

Length of forelegs to 

elbow 7! 

Breadth at shoulders . 6 
Breadth at quarters . . 6 

Girth 19 

Feathering on tail flag 6 
Waistcoat feathering . 4 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 89 

The origin of the breed is unknown, but it is supposed to 
be descended from the original curly King Charles Spaniel 
(see Mr. Watson's " Book of the Dog ") and the old- 
fashioned curly Sussex Spaniel, now extinct. There is no 
certainty in this. The breed exists in Italy and Holland. 

Toy Spaniels also have the Northern Toy Spaniel 
Club. Secretary, Mrs. - E. A. Furnival, Eastwood, 
Mauldeth Road, Heaton Mersey, Manchester. 

Griffons Bruxellois. Points as defined by the 
Griffon Bruxellois Club. Hon. Secretary, Miss L. 
Feilding, 48, Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W. General 
Appearance. A lady's little dog, intelligent, sprightly, 
robust, of compact appearance, reminding one of a cob, 
and captivating the attention by a quasi-human expres- 
sion. Head. Rounded, and covered with coarse, rough 
hairs, somewhat longer round the eyes and on the 
nose, lips, and cheeks. Ears. Erect when clipped, 
semi-erect when not clipped. Eyes. Very large without 
being watery, round, nearly black ; eyelids edged 
with black ; eyelashes long and black, leaving the 
eye they encircle perfectly uncovered. Nose. Always 
black, short, surrounded with hair converging upwards 
and going to meet that which surrounds the eyes ; 
the break (or stop in the nose) pronounced, but not 
exaggerated. Lips. Edged with black, furnished with 
moustache ; a little black in the moustache is not a 
fault. Chin. Prominent, without showing the teeth, 
and edged by a small beard. Chest. Rather wide. 
Legs. As straight as possible, of medium length. Tail. 
Upward, and cut to the two-thirds. Colour. Red. 
Texture of Coat. Harsh and wiry, rather long. Weight. 
Light weight 5 Ibs. maximum, and heavy weight 
9 Ibs. the maximum. Faults. Brown nose, pale-coloured 
eyes, silky tuft on the head, white spot on the chest or paw. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 



Hard coat 15 

Reddish colour ..... 10 

Eyes 7 

Nose and muzzle .... 7 

Ears 3 



Legs and body 5 

Height and size .... 3 

General appearance . 10 

TOTAL 60 



90 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

The Brussels Griffon Club of London (Secretary, 
Miss A. F. Hall, 2, Park Place Villas, Maida Hill, 
London, W.) offers practically the same standard, but 
makes a brown nose, white hairs, and a hanging tongue 
disqualify, while as faults it cites light eyes, silky hair 
on head, brown nails, and teeth showing ; and its de- 
scription of the typical coat is as follows : Texture of 
coat harsh and wiry, irregular, rather long and thick. 

Schipperkes. The description of the Schipperke 
adopted at a general meeting of the Belgian Schipperke 
Club, June igth, 1888, has been adopted by the St. 
Hubert Schipperke Club, and is copyright. The Schip- 
perke Club, England, advances the following scale of 
points, and the Secretary is G. H. Killick, Esq., Moor 
House, Chorley, Lancashire. 

Head. Foxy in type ; skull should not be round, but 
broad, and with little "stop." The muzzle should be 
moderate in length ; fine, but not weak ; should be well- 
filled out under the eyes. Nose. Black and small. 
Eyes. Dark brown, small, more oval than round, and 
not full ; bright and full of expression. Ears. Shape : 
Of moderate length, not too broad at the base, tapering 
to a point. Carriage : Stiffly erect, and, when in that 
position, the inside edge to form as near as possible a 
right angle with the skull, and strong enough not to 
be bent otherwise than lengthways. Teeth. Strong 
and level. Neck. Strong and full, rather short, set 
broad on the shoulders, and slightly arched. Shoulders. 
Muscular and sloping. Chest. Broad and deep in 
brisket. Back. Short, straight, and strong. Loins. 
Powerful, well drawn up from the brisket. Forelegs. 
Perfectly straight, well under the body, with bone in 
proportion to the body. Hindlegs. Strong, muscular ; 
hocks well let down. Feet. Small, catlike, and stand- 
ing well on the toes. Nails. Black. Hindquarters. 
Fine compared to the foreparts ; muscular and well- 
developed thighs ; tailless ; rump well rounded. Coat. 
Black, abundant, dense, and harsh, smooth on the 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 9! 

head, ears, and legs ; lying close on the back and 
sides, but erect and thick round the neck, forming a 
mane and frill, and well feathered on back of thighs. 
Weight. About 12 Ibs. General Appearance. A small, 
cobby animal, with sharp expression, intensely lively, 
presenting the appearance of being always on the alert. 
Disqualifying Points. Drop or semi-erect ears. Faults. 
White hairs are objected to, but are not disqualifying. 

RELATIVE VALUE OF POINTS. 



Head, nose, eyes, and 

teeth 20 

Ears 10 

Neck, shoulders, and 

chest 10 

Back and loins 5 

Forelegs 5 



Hindlegs 5 

Feet 5 

Hindquarters 10 

Coat and colour .... 20 

General appearance . 10 

TOTAL 100 



The St. Hubert Schipperke Club standard is prac- 
tically identical with that of the Schipperke Club, 
England, the only variation being as regards the weight 
limits, which this club, however, also fixes at a maxi- 
mum of 12 Ibs. for small-sized dogs, while it allots 
30 points to coat and colour, and none to general 
appearance. They also have the Northern Schipperke 
Club. Hon. Secretary, T. W. Markland, Ingersley, 
Links Gate, St. Anne's-on-the-Sea. 

Pugs. Standard and acknowledged points : 
THE STANDARD. 



Symmetry 10 

Size 5 

Condition 5 

Body 10 

Legs 5 

Feet 5 

Head 5 

Muzzle 5 

Ears s TOTAL 100 



Eyes 10 

Mask 5 

Wrinkles 5 

Tail 5 

Trace 5 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

General carriage .... 5 



A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 



ACKNOWLEDGED POINTS. 

Symmetry. Symmetry and general appearance, de- 
cidedly square and cobby. A lean, leggy pug and a 
dog with short legs and a long body are equally objec- 
tionable. Size and Condition. The pug should be 
multum in parvo, but this condensation (if the word may 
be used) should be shown by compactness of form, well- 
knit proportions, and hardness of developed muscle. 
Weight from 13 Ibs. to 17 Ibs., dog or bitch. Body. 
Short and cobby, wide in chest, and well ribbed up. 
Legs. Very strong, straight, of moderate length, and 




BLACK PUG. 
" Larchmoor Peter Pan,' owned b-" Mrs. Lyle. 

well under. Feet. Neither so long as the foot of the 
hare nor so round as that of the cat ; well split-up toes, 
and the nail black. Muzzle. Short, blunt, square, but 
not up - faced. Head. Large, massive, round, not 
apple-headed, with no indentation of the skull. Eyes. 
Dark in colour, very large, bold, and prominent, globular 
in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, very lustrous, 
and, when excited, full of fire. Ear . Thin, small, soft, 
like black velvet. There are two kinds, the " rose " 
and " button." Preference is given to the latter, 
Markings. Clearly defined. The muzzle or mask, ears, 
moles on cheeks, thumb-mark or diamond on forehead, 
back-trace, should be as black as possible. Mask.; 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 93 

The mask should be black. The more intense and 
well-defined it is the better. Wrinkles. Large and 
deep. Trace. A black line extending from the occiput 
to the tail. Tail. Curled tightly as possible over the 
hip. The double curl is perfection. Coat. Fine, smooth, 
soft, short, and glossy, neither hard nor woolly. Colour. 
Silver, or apricot fawn. Each should be decided, to 
make the contrast complete between the colour and the 
mask and trace. N.B. The points of black pugs, 
except as to colour, are the same as those for fawns. 
The London and Provincial Pug Club. Secretary, 

J. Fabian, 460, Camden Road, London, N. 



Toy Bulldogs. POINTS OF TOY BULLDOGS. The 
general appearance of the toy bulldog must, as nearly as 
possible, resemble that of the big bulldog. The skull 
should be large, forehead flat, the skin about it well 
wrinkled, the " stop " broad and deep, extending up 
the middle of the forehead. Eyes of moderate size, 
situated low down on the skull, and as wide apart as 
possible. Ears to be " rose," if possible; " tulip " ears 
are allowable, but not to be encouraged ; " button," or 
terrier-like ears are a decided fault. Face to be as 
short as possible, nose jet black, deeply set back, almost 
between the eyes. Muzzle to be short, broad, and 
turned upwards. The lower jaw should project con- 
siderably in front of the upper and turn up. Teeth 
not to be shown. Neck to be short, with much loose 
skin about it. " Frogginess " is objectionable. Chest 
to be very wide, round, and deep. Back short and 
strong, narrow towards the loins, and broad at the 
shoulder. A roach back is desirable. Tail to be short, 
and not carried above the back. Forelegs to be short 
in proportion to the hindlegs. Hindquarters much 
lighter in proportion than forequarters. The most 
desirable weight is below 20 Ibs., and dogs and bitches 
that exceed 22 Ibs. should be disqualified. The Miniature 
Bulldog Club. Secretary, Miss A. Bruce, 42, Hill Street, 
Berkeley Square, London, W. 



94 



A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 



SCALE OF POINTS. 



General appearance 

and character .... 10 

Head 15 

Ears 15 

Body 10 



Size and weight .... 20 

Tail 5 

Legs 15 

Chest 10 

TOTAL 100 



DESCRIPTION AND POINTS OF THE FRENCH TOY BULL- 
DOG. General Appearance. The French bulldog ought 
to have the appearance of an active, intelligent, and 




FRENCH TOY BULLDOG. 
11 Barkston Billie" owned by Mrs. Townsend Green. 

very muscular dog, of cobby build, and heavy in bone 
for its size. Head is of great importance, large and 
square. Forehead nearly flat, the muscles of the 
cheek well developed, but not prominent. The " stop " 
should be as deep as possible. The skin of the head 
should not be tight, and the forehead should be well 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 95 

wrinkled. The muzzle should be short, broad, turn 
upwards, and be very deep. The lower jaw should pro- 
ject considerably in front of upper, and should turn up, 
but should not show the teeth. The eyes should be 
of moderate size and of dark colour. No white should 
be visible when the dog is looking straight in front of 
him. They should be placed low down and wide apart. 
The nose must be black and large. Ears. Bat ears 
ought to be of a medium size, large at the base and 
rounded at the tips. They should be placed high on 
the head and carried straight. The orifice of the ear 
looks forward, and the skin should be fine and soft to 
the touch. The neck should be thick, short, and well 
arched. The body. The chest should be wide and 
well down between the legs, and the ribs well sprung. 
The body short and muscular, and well cut up. The 
back should be broad at the shoulder, tapering towards 
the loins, preferably well reached. The tail should be 
set on low, and be short, thick at the root, tapering to 
a point, and should not be carried above the level of the 
back. Legs. The forelegs should be short, straight, 
and muscular. The hindquarters, though strong, should 
be lighter in proportion to the forequarters. Hocks 
well let down. Feet should be compact and strong. 
Coat should be of a medium density : black in colour is 
very undesirable. Their Club is the Bouledogue Fran- 
cais Society. Secretary, F. Everard, u, Milk Street, 
London, E.G. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 



General appearance 

and character .... 15 

Skull 15 

Under jaw (special 

points for) 10 

Weight* 20 



Body 15 

Tail 5 

Ears (bat) 10 

Legs 5 

Chest 5 

TOTAL loo 



* No dog to win the maximum of points unless under 

22 Ibs. 

Weights. When three classes are provided, weights shall 



96 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

Yorkshire Terriers. Points of the Yorkshire Terrier, 
as laid down by the Yorkshire Terrier Club. Secre- 
tary, Mr. F. W. Randall, " The Clone," Hampton-on- 
Thames. General Appearance. Should be that of a 
long-coated pet dog, the coat hanging quite straight and 
evenly down each side, a parting extending from the 
nose to the end of the tail. The animal should be very 
compact and neat, the carriage being very upright, and 
having an important air. Although the frame is hidden 
beneath a mantle of hair, the general outline should be 
such as to suggest the existence of a vigorous and well- 
proportioned body. Head. Should be rather small and 
flat, not too prominent or round in the skull, nor too 
long in the muzzle, with a perfectly black nose. The 
fall on the head to be long, of a rich golden tan, deeper 
in colour at the sides of the head about the ear roots, 
and on the muzzle, where it should be very long. The 
hair on the chest a rich bright tan. On no account 
must the tan on the head extend on to the neck, nor 
must there be any sooty or dark hair intermingled with 
any of the tan. Eyes. Medium, dark, and sparkling, 
having a sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as 
to look directly forward. They should not be prominent, 
and the edge of the eyelids should be of a dark colour. 
Ears. Small V-shaped, and carried semi-erect or erect, 
covered with short hair, colour to be of a very deep rich 
tan. Mouth. Perfectly even, with teeth as sound as 
possible. An animal having lost any teeth through 
accident not a fault, providing the jaws are even. Body. 
Very compact, and a good loin. Level on the top ot 
the back. Coat. The hair on body as long as possible, 
and perfectly straight (not wavy), glossy like silk, and 
of a fine silky texture. Colour, a dark steel blue (not 

be as follows : (i) Under 20 Ibs. ; (2) 20 Ibs. and under 
24 Ibs. ; (3) 24 Ibs. and under 28 Ibs. 

When only two classes are provided, weights shall be as 
follows : (i) Under 24 Ibs. ; (2) 24 Ibs., not exceeding 
28 Ibs. 

These weights are subject to alteration. 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 97 

silver blue) extending from the occiput (or back of 
skull) to the root of tail, and on no account mingled 
with fawn, bronze, or dark hairs. Legs. Quite straight, 
well covered with hair of a rich golden tan, a few shades 
lighter at the ends than at the roots, not extending 
higher on the forelegs than the elbow, nor on the hind- 
legs than the stifle. Feet. As round as possible, and 
the toe-nails black. Tail. Cut to medium length ; 
with plenty of hair, darker" blue in colour than the rest 
of the body, especially at the end of the tail, and carried 
a little higher than the level of the back. Tan. All tan 
hair should be darker at the roots than in the middle, 
shading to a still lighter tan at the tips. Weight. 
Three classes : 5 Ibs. and under ; 7 Ibs. and under, but 
over 5 Ibs. ; over 7 Ibs. 

" Silver " Yorkshire. Points identical with those 
of the Standard Yorkshire, as described above, except 
colouring, which should be ac- follows : Back. Silver. 
Head. Pale tan or straw colour. Muzzle and Legs. 
Light tan. Ears. A shade darker tan. 

VALUE OF POINTS IN JUDGING. 



Quantity and length 

of coat 15 

Quality and texture 

of coat 10 

Richness of tan on 

head and legs .... 15 
Colour of hair on 

body 15 

Head . 10 



5 

Ears 5 

Legs and feet 5 

Tail (carriage of) ... 5 



Mouth 

Formation and general 



5 



appearance 10 

TOTAL 100 



Italian Greyhounds. The Italian Greyhound is 
somewhat fuller in proportion than the English Grey- 
hound, and the nose is somewhat shorter. In other re- 
spects this beautiful dog follows the lines of its prototype 
as closely as possible, due allowance being made for 
difference in size. The colour most prized is a golden 
fawn, then cream, or blue fawn, followed by reds and 
whites ; mixtures are not considered desirable. Coat 

7 



98 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

should be very fine, soft, and glossy. The best size 
is that of a dog of about 8 Ibs. weight. From Rawdon 
Lee's " Modern Dogs." Hon. Secretary of Club, Mrs. 
Scarlett, Went House, West Mailing, Kent. 

Maltese. This is probably the oldest of the toy 
dogs, having been highly prized by the ladies of ancient 
Greece, and doubtless of other nations at the same 
time. The coat is very long, straight, and silky (in 
first-rate specimens sweeping the ground), quite free 
from woolliness and from the slightest curl. Colour, 
pure white. Nose should be black, also roof of the 
mouth. Ears moderately long, the hair on them 
mingling with that on the neck. Tail short and well 
feathered, curled tightly over back. Size should not 
exceed 5 Ibs. or 6 Ibs., the smaller the better, other points 
being correct. Rawdon Lee's " Modern Dogs." They 
have the Maltese Club of London. Hon. Secretary, 
Arthur Stevenson, 52, Holloway Road, N. 

Poodles. Points of the perfect black poodle, as 
defined by the Poodle Club. Secretary, Mr. L. W. 
Crouch, The Orchard, Swanley Village, Kent. General 
Appearance. That of a very active, intelligent, and 
elegant-looking, dog, well built, and carrying himself 
very proudly. Head. Long, straight, and fine, the 
skull not broad, with a slight peak at the back. Muzzle. 
Long (but not snipy) and strong; not full in cheek ; 
teeth white, strong, and level ; gums black ; lips black 
and not showing lippiness. Eyes. Almond-shaped, 
very dark, full of fire and intelligence. Nose. Black 
and sharp. Ears. The leather long and wide, low set 
on, hanging close to- the face. Neck. Well propor- 
tioned and strong, to admit of the head being carried 
high and with dignity. Shoulders-. Strong and mus- 
cular, sloping well to* the back. Chest. Deep and 
moderately wide. Back, Short, strong, and slightly 
followed, the loins broad and muscular, the ribs well 
sprung and braced up. Feet. Rather small and of a 
good shape, the toes well arched, pads thick and hard. 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 99 

Legs. Fore set straight from shoulder, with plenty of 
bone and muscle ; hindlegs very muscular and well bent, 
with the hocks well let down. Tail. Set on rather 
high, well carried, never curled, or carried over back. 
Coat. Very profuse, and of good, hard texture ; if 
corded, hanging in tight, even cords ; if non-corded, 




Photo by\ 



POODLES. 



1 3?. Gibson, Penge. 



Champion " Orchard Admiral" and " L 'Enfant Prodigue,' owned 
by Mrs. Crouch. 



very thick and strong, of even length, the curls close 
and thick, without knots or cords. Colours. All black, 
all white, all red, all blue. The white poodle should 
have dark eyes, black or very dark liver nose, lips, and 
toe-nails. The red poodle should have dark amber 
eyes, dark liver nose, lips, and toe-nails. The blue 
poodle should be of even colour, and have dark eyes, 



ioo A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

lips, and toe-nails. All the other points of white, red, 
and blue poodles should be the same as in the perfect 
black poodle. N.B. It is strongly recommended that 
only one-third of the body be clipped or shaved, and 
that the hair on the forehead be left on. 

Also catered for by the Curly Poodle Club, Hon. 
Secretary, Miss F. Brunker, Whippendell House, King's 
Langley, Herts. 

VALUE OF POINTS. 



General appearance 
and movement ... 15 

Head and ears 15 

Eyes and expression 10 
Neck and shoulders . 10 
Shape of body, loin, 
back, and carriage 



Legs and feet 10 

Coat, colour, and tex- 
ture of coat 15 

Bone, muscle, and 
condition . 10 



TOTAL ioo 



of stern 15 

The Black-and-Tan Terrier. Points and stan- 
dard, as given by the Black-and-Tan Terrier Club. 
Secretary, Mr. S. J. Atkinson, 184, Adelaide Road, 
London, N. W. Head. Long, flat, and narrow, level and 
wedge-shaped, without showing cheek muscles, well filled 
up under the eyes, with tapering, tightly-lipped jaws and 
ievel teeth. Eyes. Very small, sparkling, and dark, 
set fairly close together, and oblong in shape. Nose. 
Black. Ears. Small and V-shaped, hanging close to 
the head above the eye. Neck and Shoulders. The 
neck should be fairly long, and tapering from the 
shoulders to the head, with sloping shoulders, the neck 
being free from throatiness, and slightly arched at the 
occiput. Chest. Narrow, but deep. Body. Moder- 
ately short, and curving upwards at the loin ; ribs well 
sprung ; back slightly arched at the loin, and falling 
again at the joining of the tail to the same height as 
the shoulders. Legs. Must be quite straight, set on 
well under the dog, and of fair length. Feet. More 
inclined to be cat than hare-footed. Tail. Moderate 
length, and set on where the arch of the back ends, 
thick where it joins the body, tapering to a point, 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 101 

and not carried higher than the back. Coat. Close, 
smooth, short, and glossy. Colour. Jet black and rich 
mahogany tan, distributed over the body as follows : 
On the head the muzzle is tanjteih to; the nose/ which 
with the nasal bone, is jet black ; there is also a bright 
tan spot on each cheek and a^oye e^ch fey : ';> th6 utoder 
jaw and throat are tanned, and the hair inside the ear 
is of the same colour. The forelegs tanned up to the 
knee, with black lines (pencil marks) up each toe, and 
a black mark (thumb mark) above the foot. Inside the 
hindlegs tanned, but divided with black at the hock 
joint, and under the tail also tanned, and so is the vent, 
but only sufficiently to be easily covered by the tail ; 
also slightly tanned on each side of chest. Tan outside 
of hindlegs, commonly called " breeching," a serious 
defect. In all cases the black should not run into the 
tan, or vice versa, but the division between the two 
colours should be well denned. General Appearance. 
A terrier, calculated to take his own part in the rat-pit, 
and not of the whippet type. Weight (for toys). Not 
exceeding 7 Ibs. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 



Head 20 

Eyes 10 

Ears 5 

Legs 10 

Feet 10 

Body 10 



Tail 5 

Colour and markings 15 
General appearance 
(including terrier 

quality) 15 

TOTAL 100 



Japanese and Pekingese Spaniels. Points of 
the Japanese spaniel, as set forth by the Japanese and 
Pekingese Club. This Club is now divided into the 
Japanese Chin Club and the Pekingese Club, the Secre- 
tary of both being Mr. E. T. Cox, 65 and 66, Chancery 
Lane, London, E.C. General Appearance. That of a 
lively, highly-bred little dog, with dainty appearance, 
smart, compact carriage, and profuse coat. These dogs 
should be essentially stylish in movement, lifting the 
feet high when in motion, carrying the tail (which is 



102 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

heavily feathered) proudly curved or plumed over the 
back. In size they vary considerably, but the smaller 
they are the better, provided type and quality are not 
sacrificecx.' When dividM by weight, classes should be 
for underhand ov.er 7 IbsJ Coat. The coat should be 
long-, '"prcf USB,' aiyi gtraigbt, free from curl or wave, and 
not be too flat ; it should have a tendency to stand out, 
more particularly at the frill, with profuse feathering on 




PEKINGESE. 
" Ven Chu of Newnham" owned by Mrs. IV. H. Herbert. 

the tail and thighs. Colour. The dogs should be either 
black-and-white or red-and-white i.e., parti-coloured. 
The term " red " includes all shades of sable, brindle, 
lemon, and orange, but the brighter and clearer the red 
the better. The white should be clear white, and the 
colour, whether black or red, should be evenly dis- 
tributed patches over the body, cheek, and ears. Head. 
Should be large for size of dog, with a broad skull, 



POINTS, ETC., OF VARIOUS TOY BREEDS 103 

rounded in front ; eyes large, dark, set far apart ; muzzle 
very short and wide, and well cushioned i.e., the upper 
lips rounded on each side of the nostrils, which should 
be large and black, except in the case of red-and-white 
dogs, when a brown-coloured nose is as common as a 
black one. Ears. Should be small, set wide apart, and 
high on the dog's head, and carried slightly forward, 
V-shaped. Body. Should be squarely and compactly 
built, wide in chest, " cobby " in shape. The length of 
the dog's body should be about its height. Legs and 
Feet. The legs should be straight and the bone fine ; 
the feet should be long and hare-shaped. The legs 
should be well feathered to the feet on the front legs and 
to the thighs behind. The feet should also be feathered. 
The points of Pekingese (as given by the same club). 
General Appearance. That of a quaint and intelligent 
little dog, rather long in body, with heavy front chest, 
and bow legs i.e., very much out at elbow the body 
falling away lighter behind. The tail should be carried 
right up in a curve over the animal's back, but not too 
tightly curled. In size these dogs vary very much, but 
the smaller the better, provided type and points are not 
sacrificed. When divided by weight, classes should 
be for under 10 Ibs. and over 10 Ibs. Legs. Should be 
short and rather heavy in bone, but not extravagantly 
so, as coarseness is to be avoided in every point ; they 
should be well out at elbow, and the feet turned out- 
wards also. Both legs and feet should be feathered. 
Head. Should be of medium size, with broad skull, 
flat between ears, but rounded on the forehead, muzzle 
very short (not underhung), and very wide. The face 
should be wrinkled and nostrils black and full. Eyes 
large and lustrous ; ears set high in the head, and V-- 
shaped ; they should be moderate in size (the tips never 
coming below the muzzle), and should be covered with 
long, silky hair, which extends much below the leather 
of the ear proper. Colour. These dogs should either 
be red, fawn, sable, or brindle, with black masks, face 
and ear shadings, or else all black. White patches on 



io 4 A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS 

feet or chest, although not a disqualification, should 
not be encouraged. Coat. Should be long, flat, and 
rather silky, except at the frill, where it should stand 
out, like a lion's mane. The feathering on thighs and 
tail should be very profuse, and it is preferable that it 
should be of a lighter colour than the rest of the coat. 

There is also the Pekin Palace Dog Association. 
Secretary, Miss L. C. Smythe, 115, Delaware Mansions, 
Sutherland Avenue, London, W. 

Some other clubs are as follows (but it is in many cases 
usual to change the Secretary annually, so that these 
addresses are not all permanent, though letters generally 
find their mark) : 

Halifax and District Yorkshire Terrier Club (Secretary, 
T. Whiteley, 10, High Street, Halifax). 

Manchester and District Yorkshire Terrier Club (Secretary, 
J. Hardman, 9, Richmond Street, Newton Heath, Man- 
chester). 

Oldham Toy Dog Society (Hon. Secretary, A. E. Stansfield, 
209, Park Road, Oldham). 

Yorkshire Pom Club (Hon. Secretary, E. Poppleton, i, 
Clarendon Street, Wakefield). 

Toy Dog Society of Scotland (Secretary, James Cameron, 
61, Lothian Road, Edinburgh). 

North of England Toy Dog Club (Secretary, R. Weather- 
head, 14, Arctic Parade, Great Horton, Bradford). 

Tov Dog Society (Secretary, E. T. Cox, 65 and 66, Chancery 
" Lane, E.G.). 



INDEX 



ABSCESSES on toes, 46 
Amaurosis, 72 
Anaemia, 42 
Aperients, 56 
Appetite, loss of, 48 
Areca-nut, 54 
Arsenic, 66 

Bad doer, the, 5 1 

Bare patches, 63 

Bat ears, 34 

Baths, medicated, 64 

Biliousness, 48 

Black-and-tan terriers, 37 

standard of, 100 
Black pugs, 40 

standard of, 92 
Blenheims, 40 

standard of, 86 
Bones, 23 

Breed, choice of, 30 
Breeding, 5 
Bronchitis, 74 
Bulldogs, toy, 34 

standard of, 93 
Buying dogs, 4 

Canker in ears, 69 

in teeth, 45 
Caries, dental, 45 
Castor oil, 77 
Catarrhal distemper, 58 
Chest diseases, 74 
Chill, 48 

Clinical thermometer, 48 
Clubs, supplementary list, 
Coat, 24, 44 
Cod liver oil, 44 
Cold in eyes, 72 
Colds, 73 



104 



Conditioning, 72 
Coughs, 73 

Dew-claws, 73 
Digestive tonic, 50 
Disagreeable breath, 5 1 
Discharge after pupping, 1 3 
Distemper, 57 
Docking, 46 

Ears, 69 

to alter carriage of, 70 
Eczema, 61, 72 
Entering dogs for shows, 27 
Epilepsy, 77 

Erythema or puppy -pox, 64, 68 
Etiquette of shows, 29 
Exhibiting, 23 
Eyes, 71 

" Faking," 23 
Fatness or obesity, 75 
Feeding of Toys, 19, 43, 65 
Feet, sore, 72 
Fits, 77 

French toy bulldog, standard 
of, 94 

Gastritis, 60 
Golden ointment, 71 
Griffons Bruxellois, 37 
standard of, 89 

Hysieria, 75 

Indigestion, 50 
Internal parasites, 52 
Iron tonic, 44 

Italian greyhound, standard 
of, 97 



105 



io6 



INDEX 



Japanese spaniel, 35 
standard of, 101 

Kanofelin remedies, 63 

Maltese, 41 

standard of, 98 
Mange, follicular and sar- 

coptic, 64 
Mating bitches, 6 
Meat diet, 21, 43 
Mercury, 45, 62 
Milk, 22 
Missing, 8 

Ophthalmia, 71 

Pekingese spaniels, 35 

standard of, 103 
Pityriasis, 63 
Poison, 75 
Pomeranians, 31 

standard of, 80 
Poodles, 27 

standard of, 98 
Preparing for exhibition, 23 
Pugs, 39 

standard of, 91 
Puppies, birth of, 10 

house for, 14 

rearing of, 14 

size of, 6 

skin troubles of, 63 

training of, 18 
Pupping, 9 



Rashes, 62 

Relapse from distemper, 59 

Requisites for shows, 28 

Ringworm, 67 

Round worms, 55 

Salt, 76 
Scavenging, 20 
Schipperkes, 32 

standard of, 90 
Season, 7 
Shivering, 74 
Shows, chief, 30 
Shyness in ring, 29 
Skin diseases, 61 
Stomach coughs, 74 
Strychnine, 76 
Stuttgart disease, 49, 60 
Suckling fits, 77 
Sulphur ointment, 63 

Tape-worms, 52 
Tear channels, 42 
Teeth, bad, 45 
Teething, 17 
nts, 77 

Temperature, to take, 49 
Toothache, 46 
Toy spaniels, standard of, 83 

Washing, 26 

Worm medicines, 54 

Yorkshire terriers, 38 
standard of, 96 



BILLING AND SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, GUILDFORD. 



FROM MR. EDWARD ARNOLD'S LIST. 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

DARLING DOGS. 

BY 

MARGARET LILITH WILLIAMS. 

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Price 5s. net. 

TlMES. " An attractive book of talk, light and serious, and 
of experiences of many kinds, about dogs in the particular and 
in the abstract by an enthusiast." 

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WORLD. "That it is written by one whose heart and soul 
is in her subject is apparent in the first few pages, and for thai 
very reason they go straight to the heart of every dog-lover. 
Altogether, a charming volume, excellently illustrated." 

DAILY EXPRESS. " An account of the intimate life of certain 
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them it may be confidently recommended." 

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perhaps all those who love animals of any kind will like to have 
'Darling Dogs,* . . . charmingly illustrated and written from 
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LONDON : EDWARD ARNOLD, 41 & 43 MADDOX ST., W. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
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MAR 2 8 1980 



REC.CIRFEB25W 



D 21-100m-9,'47(A5702sl6)476 



16123 



577545 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY